Venezuela Subway Map

History Of Country Region

With Cyprian, between 248258, these same ideas received an institutional character. Confessors and martyrs deserved commemoration by the church, but Cyprian considered the greater glory martyrdom as pertaining to the bishop Ep. 13,1: CSEL 3,2, 504-505. Only the church, represented by its bishops, could remit sins. Confessors, however illustrious, had no such right Ep. 27,3, and voluntary martyrdom i.e., not regulated by the church was disapproved of Ep. Venezuela Subway Map 81. At the same time, Cyprian insisted on the church’s integrity and purity. Venezuela Subway Map Closed garden, sealed fountain Ep. 69,2; 74,11, Noah’s ark: these were the main OT images he used to describe the church’s exclusive nature. Moreover, in his dispute with Pope Stephen in 25456, Cyprian found the African bishops ready to agree that, first, no priest in mortal sin could validly administer a sacrament, and that it was the duty of the community to separate itself from a sinful priest under the pain of risking contamination by sin Ep. 67,4; second, there could be no valid baptism administrated outside of the church, and whoever received baptism from heretics or schismatics had to be rebaptized upon entering the Catholic church Cypr., Ep. 69-74 and Sent. epis., passim.

Donatist ecclesiology combined aspects of both Tertullian and Cyprian. The Donatists shared Cyprian’s opinions on the absolute importance of the church’s integrity, and appealed to his authority to support their baptismal theology Aug., Bapt. I, 1, de beatissimi martyris Cypriani auctoritate: PL 43, 109. At the conference of Carthage of 411 their Mandatum Coll. Carth. III, 258: SC 224,1196 stated: We show rather that in the Sacred Scriptures the church of God is everywhere proclaimed to be holy and immaculate Magis ostendimus Ecclesiam Domini in scripturis divinis sanctam et immaculatam fore ubique nuntiatam. But integrity came first. Only the pure church must be proclaimed to the outside world. The churches outside of Africa, being in communion with Caecilian, had apostatized. Christianity survived only in Africa Aug., Ad Cathol. Epist. 9,23. Venezuela Subway Map Following Cyprian, Parmenian claimed that the Donatist church was truly the closed garden and sealed fountain hortum conclusum et fontem signatum: Opt., I, 10, and possessed the requisite gifts dotes: ibid.. Venezuela Subway Map From this it followed that only sacraments administered by a holy minister, i.e., a Donatist, were valid Petilian, cited by Aug., C. litt. Petiliani II, 2,4; 7,14: CSEL 52,24,25. Baptism received from someone outside of the church was as if received from a dead person ibid. II, 7,14 and cf. Cypr., Ep. 71,1. Consequently, baptism and the other sacraments dispensed by traditor clergy i.e., by Catholics were invalid, and Catholics who entered the Donatist church had to be rebaptized, a requirement that seemed particularly scandalous to Augustine.

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