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Utilitarianism. The philosophy by which the purpose of government was the maximization of the sum of utility, defined in terms of pleasure and pain, in the community as a whole. It was not hedonistic hedonism) in so far as pleasure could include, for instance, the satisfaction of helping others. The purpose of government was to ensure the greatest happiness of the greatest number’. It implied that utility could be measured and interpersonal comparisons made. Its chief advocate was JEREMY BENTHAM.

Utility. The satisfaction, pleasure or fulfilment of needs derived from consuming some quantity of a good. It is essentially a psychological concept which is incapable of direct measurement in absolute units. The concept of utility lay at the heart of the classical theory of demand, in the form of the law of diminishing marginal utility, until the 1930s, when j. r. hicks and r. g. d. allen rediscovered and extended the work of e. slutsky and v. f. d. pareto on indifference analysis. The objection was that if utility is essentially unmeasurable, it is invalid to construct a theory which proceeds as if it could be measured. Demand theory was therefore recast in terms of ordinal utility, i.e. the consumer was assumed simply to be able to rank quantities of goods on the basis of preference (c^> consumers’

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