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Notably, this very same concept is also expressed in one of the New Testament passages that are most influenced by Hellenistic moral philosophy, 1 Tim 5:6: the author, referring to a widow who devotes her life to pleasures, says: She who gives herself to a life of pleasure, even if she is alive, is already dead zwsa te,qnhken. But in Rev 3:1-2, too, the meaning conveyed is exactly the same: the person who acts badly is morally and spiritually dead or deadly ill: St Petersburg Map I know your deeds: you are said to be alive zh|j, and yet you are dead nekro,j. Get up, and strengthen what remains which is about to die e;mellon avpoqanein; for I did not find your deeds perfect before my God. As is evident, John does not conceive of this condition as definitive and irredeemable: he looks to the future and invites the dying to improve and live.

This notion of the spiritual death of the immoral person can be compared to Paul’s description of the death of the soul in Rom 7:6-25 and 8:1-13. Here Paul depicts spiritual life as death to sin and spiritual death as the result of sin: sin began to live avne,zhsen, while I died avpe,qanon 7:9-10; this body of death qana,tou 7:6; the law of sin and death qana,tou 8:2; the way of thinking proper to the flesh is death qa,natoj, that of the spirit is life zwh, and peace 8:6; your body is dead nekro,n due to sin, but your spirit is life zwh, thanks to justification 8:10. Rom 7:7-25 has been rightly connected by Emma Wasserman to Philo’s conception of spiritual death; as I have shown, there are many other authors and texts that are influenced by this idea. The same notion of sinners finding themselves in spiritual death is conveyed by the Shepherd of Hermas, Sim. 6.2.3: those who are represented as sheep living a life of pleasure spatalwnta, exactly the same verb used in 1 Tim 5:6, h` spatalwsa are doomed to death qa,natoj.

Related to this set of ideas is the widely attested notion that the death of a Christian at first the day of a martyr’s death, then extended to all Christians is his or her dies natalis, his or her birth to the other life, regarded as the true life, or the more important life, in that it is eternal. Now, already in 4 Macc 16:12-13 the idea is attested that the death of the martyrs is their birth to immortality. But even in a pagan author contemporary with the first Christians, in Seneca, there is a passage that expresses a strikingly similar concept: the day of one’s death is his or her dies aeterni natalis. In his Epistulae ad Lucilium, dating to the last years of his life, in the 60s of the 1st c., and in particular in one of the last, roughly contemporary with the first anti-Christian persecution under Nero, which produced the first Christian martyrs, Seneca observes: When the day comes to separate the heavenly from its earthly blend, I shall leave the body here where I found it, and shall of my own volition find my way to the gods.

I am not apart from them now, but am merely detained in a heavy and earthly prison . As the mother’s womb holds us for ten months, just so, we are making ourselves ready for another birth. A different beginning, a different condition, await us. That day, which you fear as being the end of all things, is the birthday of your eternity Ep. 102,22-26. Of course, both the above-mentioned passages and the whole biblical conception of death, in addition to the philosophers’ views esp. Platonic, provide the basis for the Fathers’ thinking concerning death. In the Bible, Gen 3:19 presents death as the consequence of original sin, a conception that is echoed in Rom 5:12 death entered the world due to sin, 5:17 death began to reign because of one human being, 5:21 sin reigned in death, evbasi,leusen h` a`marti,a evn tw| qana,tw|, and 6:23 the wages of sin is death; 1 Cor 15:21 death came into being because of one human being, and Jas 1:15 sin generates death. Thus, as is also emphasized in the book of Wisdom, death was not part of God’s original plan; it was not created by God, who created only good things, but it entered the world through sin, by a deception, due to the devil’s fraud Wisd 2:24. Death is not good, since it is not a creation of God; it is an evil, and this, as I shall point out, at least for some NT and patristic authors has momentous consequences in respect to its future disappearance.

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