Seno Travel on We need to travel a century back in time, to the interventions of William Petty, to trace how this revolution in understanding the division of labor was linked to the rise of capitalism, the conquest of foreign markets, and the gradual emergence of a world market for the commodity of labor power. Although Bernard Mandeville is generally credited with being the first to use the phrase division of labor, it was in fact Petty who anticipated all the essentials of what Adam Smith was to say about it, including its dependence upon the size of markets (Schumpeter 1986, 207). The author of Political Arithmetick (written in 1676) emphasized even more than Smith the spatial dimension of division of labor, which is particularly important from the point of view of a genealogy of the international division of labor. Appointed as a physician to Oliver Cromwell’s army in Ireland, Petty made a name for himself surveying Ireland in the mid-i6sos (McCormick 2009). In the Political Anatomy of Ireland, he tried to calculate the economic prices of the massacres and deportations during rebellion and war using his theory of the value of populations. He also gave an early and vivid example of the role played by the invention of the white race (Allen 1994-97)”the racial boundary in our terms”in the emerging intertwining of political borders and the expanding frontiers of capital: Englishmen, he calculated, were worth £70 apiece, whereas Irish laborers he estimated as Slaves and Negroes are usually rated, viz. at about £15 one with another (quoted in McCormick 2009,189). Seno Travel 2016.
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