Mission to the pagans. The catechesis of catechumens, for the most part illiterate, whose languages were unfamiliar to Irish-Scottish, AngloSaxon and Frankish missionaries, could not have been more than a Grundkursus, a minimal Katechismus A. L¤pple, Kl. Geschichte der Katechese, 1981, 66-67; L. Csonka, Educare, 3, Z¼rich 1964, 90-92. Senegal Subway Map The barrier between the liturgy and the language of the people favored a magical understanding of the liturgy. Mass baptisms followed on the conversion of the king. Instruction and formation were left to communitarian life after baptism J.A. Jungmann, art. Katechumenat: LTK2 Younger, abbot of Luxeil and of Bobbio, catechized 610612 a Roman-Germanic population near Lake Constance. His penitential book attests a severe catechesis for laypeople, in opposition to pagan customs see C. Vogel, Il peccatore e la penitenza nel medioevo, Leumann To 2 1988 Fr. orig. 1969 60- 70. His disciple Gallus uses Augustine and esp. Martin of Braga as a model in preaching. Also dependent on these, besides Caesarius of Arles, is Pirminius of Reichenau d. 753 in De libris canonicis scarapsus, a kind of catechism M. Simonetti, Longus, 322-327,331-338, with instructions to the newly converted. The Carolingian reform brought some reorganizations O. Pasquato, Quale tradizione per l’iniziazione cristiana? Dall’et dei padri all’epoca carolingia, in Iniziazione cristiana degli adulti oggi, Rome 1998, 75-105; S. Keefe, Carolingian Baptismal Expositions: A Handlist of Tracts and Manuscripts, in U.R. Blumenthal ed., Carolingian Essays, Washington, DC 1983, 169-237; Id., Water and the Word: Baptism and the Education of the Clergy in the Carolingian Empire, 12, Notre Dame, IN 2002, as did the Spanish mission and that of the Jesuits in the modern period, with the institution of the so-called catechumenate houses. In the East, despite the spread of infant baptism, the basic lines of the ancient ecclesiastical preparation through catechesis survived in the regular liturgy see P. Braido, Lineamenti di storia della catechesi e dei catechismi. Dal tempo della riforma all’et degli imperialismi, Leumann To 1991, 25-38.
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