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History Of Country Region

In fact, this historic formulation of an ecumenical conciliar creed did not immediately serve the purpose it had been made for. In the West it did not circulate very widely, and soon after the Council of Nicaea it practically disappeared from the controversies that continued to rage for another 56 years. Nevertheless, N had shown a way to formulate creeds, and the years between San Jose Subway Map 341 and 362 saw a series of attempts to resolve the differences of opinion in East and West by formulating a creed that could satisfy all the parties, or at least express the faith of the majority.

Toward the end of this period even the emperor played a part. The most important examples of the written creeds of this period were the Creed of the Dedication or Second Antiochene Creed, drawn up by the Synod of Antioch of 341: it omitted homoousion, described the persons of the Trinity as three in person u`po,stasij but one in harmony sumfwni,a and the Son as the Father’s image, without differences of substance ousia, and anathematized many Arian opinions. For some time until ca. 370, there was a strong possibility that this creed could become an alternative to N; its attribution to Lucian of Antioch, martyr and theologian of the first years of the 4th c., is controversial.

The Fourth Antiochene Creed also of 341 was sent by the Eastern bishops to Emperor Constans in the West in an attempt to conciliate Western opinion without returning to N. It too omitted homoousion and anathematized some Arian propositions, but it called Christ simply God from God. Though of little importance in itself, this creed became the basis and substance of numerous other creeds, such as that of the Eastern bishops at Philippopolis 343, the Fifth Antiochene Creed called Ekthesis makrostichos, drawn up at Antioch in 344 and containing a lengthy appendix condemning an ample series of heterodox opinions, esp. those that inclined to Sabellianism the refusal to see distinctions of persons in the deity, in particular that of Marcellus of Ancyra and the First Creed of Sirmium, formulated by the II Council of Sirmium 351 and largely aimed against Marcellus and his more radical disciple Photinus of Sirmium.

A completely new direction was taken with the appearance in 357 of the Second Creed of Sirmium, which later opponents would call the blasphemy of Sirmium. Here, for the first time, something like a consistent Arian theology emerged: it rejected any use of substance ousia as a term to define the Son’s relation to the Father, on which it refused to speculate, and drastically subordinated the Son to the Father, together with the rest of creation. The creed provoked a reaction among a number of Eastern theologians which led to the Third Creed of Sirmium, at the IV Council of Sirmium 358: it opted for o`moiou,sion rather than o`moou,sion and rejected the Arian alternatives of 357.


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