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Samux Travel on Tempted by favored paths to permanent residency for students who qualify in nominated fields, these Indian migrants often take on family debt to facilitate their movement and are thus compelled to work while studying, maldng them deportable subjects if, as many do, they work more than the twenty hours a week allowed by their visas. Indeed, the overlaps between the Australian education and skilled migration systems has provided a window for a whole wave of migrants to enter the national labor market, many with motivations of work and permanent residency dominating over educational ambitions. These migrants tend to take on low-status and supposedly unskilled jobs such as taxi driver, security guard, shop assistant, kitchen hand, or babysitter. As it happens, their employers often turn out to be an older generation of Indian migrants who arrived in Australia in the 1960s and 1970s and have established themselves within business and community networks. Such patterns of intraethnic employment and exploitation are well documented in studies of migration chains and networks,. where they are frequently connected with the formation of migrant enterprises, processes of ethnicization of labor markets, and the rise of ethnic enclaves in metropolitan areas (see, for instance, Light and Bonacich 1988; Model 1985; Portes and Jensen 1989; Werbner 1990). What is interesting in this case is that this same older generation of Indian migrants has also brought up a second generation of younger Indian Australians who now have the same age and sometimes study in the same institutions as many of the newer arrivals. Samux Travel 2016.

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