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Cyprian, Novatian, Dionysius of Alexandria and Victorinus of Petovium, and we can find references elsewhere. It is certainly not identical with the baptismal creed against Harnack, Kattenbusch and practically all the first scholars of the origin of the creeds but consists of a generalized summary of the Christian faith as taught and preached in the churches of the writers who speak of it, summarized in slightly different terms according to the writer’s predilections, but everywhere containing the same essential doctrine.

Origen not only lists the themes not included in the rule and so open to the development of speculation, but he also encourages his more advanced disciples to investigate them e.g., the resurrection of the body. All the ancient writers see the rule of faith as the proof of orthodoxy and a safeguard against erroneous and heretical doctrines, while the baptismal creed, mentioned by many of them, is thought of as a simple model or summary, an epitome Iren., the major and more important points, a summary, Porto Alegre Map Tourist Attractions holy seeds Orig.. We have no clear evidence that in these very early times the baptismal creed was understood or used as a criterion of correct doctrine. Some gnostic sects used a creed of their own.

In the second generation of the 3rd c., according to Kelly op. cit., 49, the custom of traditio and redditio symboli began to be widely practiced in the church: the creed was handed over to the catechumens at some initial moment of their instruction, and they repeated it later during the course of instruction, and again in the baptismal rite itself.

Why the West used the word symbolum for the profession of faith is not well known, but this practice is evidence that, at the time it was adopted, two different types of profession of faith must have been in use: the interrogatory, put to the candidate when he was baptized, and the declaratory, a continuous profession of faith made by the candidate in the first person. The declaratory creed was certainly modeled on the baptismal creed in its content but must have also been influenced by the rule of faith. In the West its particular form, developed ca. 330 in the Church of Rome the old Roman Creed, known to scholars as R, originally drawn up in an early 2nd-c. Greek formula, became the model of all Western creeds of this type. The Eastern baptismal creeds varied considerably according to their place of origin.

The Apostles’ Creed as we know it today is a slightly enlarged and modified version of R known as T, which probably came from SW France Septimania and was widely adopted in western Europe before finally being accepted by the conservative Roman Church sometime between 800 and 1000. The legend that each apostle formulated one article of this credo was widely accepted by the end of the 4th c.

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