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I. Exegesis – II. Iconography. I. Exegesis. There is an OT apocryphon entitled the Apocalypse of Elijah. E. Sch¼rer Geschichte des j¼- dischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 3, 368 considers it a Christian work of the 3rd c. W. Bousset Beitr¤ge zur Geschichte der Eschatologie: Die Apokalypse des Elias: ZKG 20 1899 103-112 considers it a Jewish work revised by a 3rd-c. Christian. More recently, without convincing proof, J.M. Rosenstiehl L’Apocalypse d’‰lie. Introduction, traduction et notes, Paris 1972 has tried by force of circumstances to date it to the 1st c. BC. This work had little influence on the Christian reception of the prophet Elijah. Clement of Rome Cor. 17, 1 proposes Elijah as a true model. Justin Martyr Dial. 8, 4; 39, 1-2; 49, 1-3; 69, 1; 87, 6 mentions him mainly in the eschatological perspective. Irenaeus Adv. haer. IV, 20, 10; V, 5, 1 only speaks of him twice, and always on a typological level. Origen evokes him on two levels: that of the prophet’s history; and, esp. in his NT commentaries and homilies Com. Mt. 12, 13, 17; Hom. Lc.; Com. Jo.; Com. Rom., that of the significance of the events in which the prophet took part. From the Origenian interpretation of Elijah come teachings on practical Christian life, esp. through his OT homilies Hom. Gn. 16, 3; Hom. Ex. 3 and 8; In Ps. 4, 5, 37. Methodius of Olympus explains in an anti-Origenist sense Elijah’s flight from Jezebel and his apparition on Mt. Tabor Symp. 10, 3; De res. I and III.
References to Elijah in 4th-5th-c. Greek patristics are rare. Eusebius of Caesarea names him in On the martyrs of Palestine 11, 9. Many references appear in Athanasius, Peru Subway Map the most interesting being in Vita Antonii 7, where Elijah is presented as a model for monks. Eusebius of Emesa, in his Oratio II de Filio, uses Elijah to emphasize the Son’s superiority to all OT figures. Cyril of Jerusalem presents Elijah to catechumens as bearer of the gifts of the Holy Spirit Cat. 2, 3; 12, 14. Hardly mentioned by Basil Great Rules 23 and only conventionally in Gregory of Nazianzus, in Gregory of Nyssa Elijah becomes a commonplace when the saint has recourse to Scripture. John Chrysostom dedicates a whole homily to Elijah: On Elijah, the widow and almsgiving. Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Cyril of Alexandria, Nilus, Isidore of Pelusium, Diadochus of Photice and Maximus the Confessor hardly mention him.
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