IV. Footwear. Among footwear, we should mention the solea, a sole placed under the foot and tied to it with cords. There were then various types of calcea, more or less open and more or less covering the foot, to the point of true and properly speaking closed shoes especially to accompany a toga with a front opening to be easily threaded. The shoes of the patricians could also be decorated with studs of silver or ivory; the upper portion of the shoe was at times artistically carved. The soccus, however, was a type of boot that went above the ankle other boots that went above the knee were the zanchae; these were of Persian origin. The gallicae, to the contrary, were low shoes, of Gallic origin, which were worn preferably with the lacerna. For the Roman soldiers there was the closed shoe with a high sole and nails, tied by laces on the outer arch. Hunters and workers had low boots, called perones. Last, let us note the campagi, which often covered the front tip and the heel but not the middle part of the foot, which was tied by a lace at the center.
The imperial campagi especially had different types of decorations, but in time they became the typical footwear for church officials. V. Military clothing. The ancient Romans derived their military style of clothing from the Etruscans and Greeks and in the late empire also from the Germans and the peoples of the Steppe and from Eastern civilizations. Therefore they put on one or more tunics the upper tunic was made of white linen for the Palatine militias and red or dark crimson for the others. The lorica or shield, above the tunic, was originally in strips of leather with bronze plates and a supplement divided by the stomach at the bottom. On the shoulders there was an analogous spin off of the bands. The loricae could have pure circles of iron on the back and descending bands from the shoulders and connected to the torso, or could be the scales-type connected by metal threads, or true batches of links in the shape of intertwined rings.
The shoulders and the forearms could be covered by scales and bands humeralia. Each armored soldier was dressed in full armor, especially the foreign militias of the Easterners covered in armor from head to toe. As a cloak, they used the sagum with a buckle but also the paenula and the various types of chlamys among which was the paludamentum especially for the emperor’s or the high officials. A belt cingulum from which dangled combat helmets used for a seige could have been supported by a balteus or a bandoleer. For the legs, they used greaves tibialia, made of leather with metal reinforcements, but the average combat soldiers often did not have them; the shoes could be the sandal type or the closed calceus, especially for the officers. At times, the soldiers also put on bracae, which were rather tight and modified banded for harsh climates.
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