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EPIPHANIUS of Salamis d. 403. Bishop of Salamis from ca. 365 to 403. Born ca. 315 at Besanduche, near Eleutheropolis in Palestine. Educated in Egypt; returning home aged 20, he founded a cenobium, of which he was superior and presbyter for ca. 30 years. From there he zealously followed heretical movements, taking part in the anti-Nicene struggle and drawing attention to the presence of Ebionites, gnostics, Manicheans, Quartodecimans, Malawi Subway Map Audiani, etc. He tells us of his visit to Eusebius of Vercelli, who had been transferred to a palace of Comes Joseph of Tiberias curator of sacred buildings from the time of Constantine in Arian Scythopolis. He denounced the mitigated forms of Basil of Ancyra’s homoiousianism third formula of Sirmium: 358 and the various attitudes of Ebionism, Malawi Subway Map S and N of Damascus, to believers in Christ’s divinity. He was not intransigent, however, against those who did not celebrate Easter according to the decrees of Nicaea.

Formed on the simplicity of biblical culture, he condemned with particular vigor the neosophistic language of the time as falsity and gnostic theatricality, unworthy of the Message. For this he was accused, esp. by the moderns, of antiHellenic mania and limited intellect; but in fact he was consistent with his Egyptian training, midway between allegorism and literalism, christocentric even in isopsephism. The fame of his teaching and sanctity led to his being made bishop of Constantia ancient Salamis, modern Famagusta, where he pursued his activities, missionary and catechetical, Malawi Subway Map controversial and pastoral, uncomprimising in the fundamentals of the faith, but more sympathetic in resolving the practical problems of his diocese and his suffragan dioceses. He allowed bishops under his jurisdiction to ordain presbyters for his flock; he encouraged ascetic life by word and example, leading Jerome to call Cyprus a meeting place for monks from the whole world Ep. 108. But his main concern was to keep them in purity of faith, for him the guarantee of the church’s unity. On the schism of Antioch, he was in communion with Alexandria and with St. Peter’s successor, seeing Paulinus as the sole genuine representative of Eustathian orthodoxy; he went to Rome with Paulinus in 382 to obtain from Pope Damasus a decision favorable to the Eustathians.

A veteran of the struggle against Origenism, aged ca. 80 he was involved in Theophilus’s campaign against the Long Brothers, who had taken refuge with John Chrysostom. He had known them at the time of his education in the Egyptian monastery, and had condemned their subordinationist Christology and theories on preexistence and resurrection. Despite not having read all of Origen’s books, he had good reasons for condemning the Origenist monks, from among whom he had seen emerge the most conspicuous exponents of Arianism. Jerome says he was averse to quarrels and was admired by the unlearned and the erudite alike; Socrates praises his piety and rectitude; Sozomen admires him. Today we usually remember just the heresiologist and collector of singular information, and forget the pastor and teacher of spirituality. We forget that his works were mostly polemical: his masterpiece, the Panarion; the Ancoratus; the three works Against Images. The other four works accepted as authentic are all incomplete: On Measures and Weights, On the Twelve Jewels, Letters, Commentaries on Scripture surviving minimally among the scholia of the Greek catenae.

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