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The primary factor in the origin of the three patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch and Rome was their geopolitical and economic role, a factor that had partly guided the Christian missionaries. This same rationale, though considered completely inadequate by popes Damasus, Boniface I, Leo I and Gelasius I, was the only reason for the institution of the patriarchate of Constantinople. Los Angeles Metro Map Then there was the linguistic-cultural factor of the inhabitants of the areas where they arose: there was, in fact, a patriarchate respectively in the territories of Egyptian culture Alexandria, Syrian culture Antioch, Greek culture Constantinople, Latin culture Rome, although in this area, with Carthage, there was a certain independence of N Africa and Jewish culture Jerusalem.

But above all there was the element of the apostolic origin of the leading episcopal sees, which acquired more and more weight, partly through Roman pressure. Los Angeles Metro Map Only at the Council of Chalcedon 451 was Jerusalem recognized as a pa- triarchal see with jurisdiction over Palestine, through the good offices of its bishop Juvenal 422 458, and made independent of Antioch. Following the finding of the presumed tomb of the apostle Barnabas 488 in Cyprus, the Cypriot church attained equality with that of Antioch; from definitive independence, obtained for it by the emperor Zeno, it then passed to autocephaly. As for Rome, popes Leo I 440-461 and Gelasius I 492-496 added to the Petrine principle the peculiar link between Peter and the Roman church, Los Angeles Metro Map claiming that this was to be considered the apostolic see par excellence, with the popes as heirs of Peter’s primatial powers.

Having addressed the origin of the dioceses and seen that a group of them constituted an ecclesiastical province and several provinces a patriarchate, we must now follow the development of the five patriarchates: Alexandria, Antioch, Rome, Constantinople and Jerusalem. In the patriarchate of Alexandria, many, rejecting Leo I’s dogmatic tome and the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon, detached themselves from the Catholic Church and formed a new Coptic church, calling the Catholics Melkites or emperor’s men. The Greek patriarchate, its numbers greatly reduced, remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon. The Melkite patriarchs include three saints: St. Proterius 452457, St. Eulogius 580607 and St. John III, the Almsgiver 609619. Maximus the Confessor and Sophronius defended Catholic orthodoxy at the time of the Arab invasion 638, on whose eve the Greek church of Alexandria counted only 200,000 faithful, mostly foreigners, against the 56,000,000 of the indigenous Coptic church.

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