Life to America

Arriving in the Massachusetts Bay Colony following a difficult three-month voyage, many survivors of the journey quickly died of disease; others decided to return to England. Those who remained elected John Winthrop governor, Thomas Dudley deputy governor, and Simon Bradstreet chief administrator. Both Dudley and Bradstreet would continue their service in colonial government, with Anne’s father eventually acting as the governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony four times and Bradstreet serving as a judge, as the colony’s representative to British Crown, and eventually as the colony’s governor for some ten years. Daily life in the colonies was difficult, characterized by scarce provisions, unsafe water, and the continual worry of attack by Native Americans against the European settlers. Anne had suffered from both rheumatic fever and smallpox before leaving England. She remained sickly in her new home and succumbed again to smallpox, lameness, and fainting spells. She presumed she would die as a young woman, presumably in childbirth, but despite her sickly disposition, she bore eight children, who all lived to adulthood. Adding to the difficulties of her life were the Bradstreets’ frequent relocations in their early marriage. From their first home in Salem, the Bradstreets moved to Charlestown, but since the water supply there was bad, in 1631, the couple moved to Newtown (now Cambridge). Shortly thereafter, they settled in Agawam (now Ipswich), where a vigorous intellectual life in the community inspired Anne to begin writing poetry in 1632. By 1645, the family included five of their eventual eight children, and Simon decided to move to a 20-acre homestead in the farming settlement of Andover, where the village’s setting near dense woods made wolves a serious and constant threat to its human inhabitants. Anne’s life was further complicated by Simon’s frequent absences. His business dealings on behalf the Massachusetts Bay Company demanded extensive travel, as did his lengthy attempt in 1661 to renegotiate the company’s charter at Charles II’s court in London. Drawing on her strong faith in God, Anne was often left alone to cope with raising children, handling domestic duties, facing the hardships of everyday colonial life, and dealing with her own loneliness. Her poetry reflects all of these facets of life in the American colonies, as well as her personal experience of universal truths. Her Poetry Anne Bradstreet’s earliest poems were collected and published, with many printing errors and without her consent, by her brother-in-law in England in 1650 as The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America. This work reflects her reading of Raleigh, Spenser, Donne, and Herbert; her derivative style is largely applied to cosmic themes. Her later poems deal much more extensively with religious themes and with Nature, life in the New World, domestic matters, and the intimacies of married life. In fact, late-twentieth-century feminist scholars have pointed to the latter two categories of Bradstreet’s poems as examples of the visionary and enduring value of her work. She revised all of her poetry in 1666 in anticipation of a new collection of her works, but this edition was not published until after her death in 1672. Barbara Schwarz Wachal See also: Arts, Culture, and Intellectual Life (Chronology); Arts, Culture, and Intellectual Life (Essay); Literature; Massachusetts Bay Colony; Women; Document: Upon the Burning of Our House (1666). Bibliography Bradstreet, Anne. The Complete Works of Anne Bradstreet. Edited by Joseph R. McElrath, Jr., and Allan P. Robb. Boston: Twayne, 1981. Rosenmeier, Rosamond. Anne Bradstreet Revisited. Boston: Twayne, 1991. Stanford, Ann. Anne Bradstreet, the Worldly Puritan: An Introduction to Her Poetry. New York: B. Franklin Publishing, 1974. White, Elizabeth Wade. Anne Bradstreet: The Tenth Muse. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971. All My Life Lyrics – America – YouTube travelquaz

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Life to America

Anti-Intellectualism in American Life by Richard Hofstadter … travelquaz

Life to America

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Life to America

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