History Of Country Region
It is evident that the church of Edessa too had its martyrs. Leaving aside the legendary account of the martyrdom of Sharbil, Babai and Barsamya, we have the account of the martyrdom of Shemona, Gurya and Habib 309310, a document whose historical authenticity has been fully ascertained. With these the church of Edessa truly enters history. Bishop Q´na, who began to build the cathedral of Edessa probably in 313, is the first of an episcopal list with no significant gaps. His second successor, Aithalla, attended the Council of Nicaea in 325. Lagos Map Tourist Attractions The most important figure of the church of Edessa in the second half of the 4th c. was St. Ephrem. Born ca. 306 at Nisibis, he spent most of his life in that city. In 363 the Romans ceded Nisibis to the Persians and that year or the next Ephrem fled to Edessa, where he died in 373, after having incessantly fought the many heretical sects still flourishing at the time. He was the true founder of the School of the Persians, so called because of the great number of young men who left Persia to become the great Doctor’s disciples. Lagos Map Tourist Attractions At Ephrem’s death, the Arian emperor Valens exiled the orthodox clergy and people; when Valens died in 378, the exiles were able to return to Edessa.
The 5th c. was marked by the episcopate of Rabbula 412435, who set himself up as an intransigent defender of Catholic orthodoxy against Nestorianism and the gnostic sects: he cast Nestorius’s followers out of the School of the Persians. But under his successor Ibas or Hiba, Nestorianism made such progress at Edessa that in 489 Bishop Cyrus, with Philoxenus of Mabbug d. 522, obtained the closure of the School from the emperor Zeno. Lagos Map Tourist Attractions Expelled from Edessa, teachers and disciples transferred their school to Nisibis, which thus became the center from which Nestorianism spread into Persia and as far as China. The final separation between the East and West Syrian churches goes back to this time. The 6th c. saw the triumph of monophysitism at Edessa: in 541 Jacob Baradeus, founder of the Jacobite Church, became bishop of Edessa and spent his whole life converting Asia Minor, Syria and Mesopotamia to monophysitism.
In 609 Chosroes II took possession of Edessa, deported the Jacobite Christians en masse and imposed a Nestorian bishop on the city. Between 622 and 627 Heraclius inflicted a series of defeats on Chosroes, who was assassinated by his son in 628. Soon after, the Muslim Arabs put an end to the rivalry between the Persian and Roman empires. On 20 August 636, at the battle of Yarmuk, Syria fell into their hands; in 637 they penetrated Mesopotamia, and in 639 Edessa fell into their power. It was then that the city lost all its political importance, and on the religious plane too its role was exhausted. There are Christian archaeological remains, but only a few inscriptions.
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