History Of Country Region
Aquileia and Ravenna were preeminent at the time of the co-emperors Honorius 395423 and Arcadius 395408. In the provinces of N Africa the metropolitan primate was the oldest bishop, who did not necessarily reside in the metropolis. In Proconsularis, however, the metropolitan was the bishop of Carthage, who also had a certain influence in the other provinces. Johannesburg/East Rand Map In Gaul, from the 4th c. the metropolitan sees coincided with the provincial capitals. The popes set up the apostolic vicariate of Arles, a see founded by St. Trophimus, a disciple of St. Peter. Johannesburg/East Rand Map For Spain, we have no evidence of the existence of the metropolitan institution until after the mid 5th c.; only in the 6th c. do we see the great provincial synods there. Everywhere, in general, ecclesiastical provinces corresponded to civil administrative units, but the church reserved the right to keep their own areas despite the changeability of the civil ones Innocent I, Ep. 24,2; Council of Chalcedon, can. 12. For individual metropolises, Eastern and Western, IV. Patriarchates.
The legal bases for their foundation were laid at the Council of Nicaea 325, can. 6, which made the bishops of Egypt, Libya and Pentapolis dependent on the bishop of Alexandria and recognized the privileged situation of Antioch, whose bishop had metropolitan powers over the 22 bishops of Coele-Syria as well as those of Cilicia, Mesopotamia, Palestine and Cyprus. These positions were also recognized by the councils of Constantinople 381, can. 2 and Ephesus 431. Can. 2 of Constantinople also named the political dioceses of the Eastern part of the empire: Oriens, Asia, Pontus and Thrace, without alluding to a church to whose bishop the government of their respective dioceses belonged: we can already foresee the institution of the Eastern patriarchate, the more so if we take into account can. 3: The bishop of Constantinople will have primacy of honor ta. presbeia thj timhj immediately after the bishop of Rome, since that is a new Rome ne,an `Rw,mhn: the thronos of Alexandria, the principal one in the East, had to take second place.
Ambitions of prelates and imperial caesaropapism, as well as the fact of having been founded by Constantine 330 and made capital of the empire so that its bishop had to be raised in dignity, took Constantinople in just 70 years from a suffragan diocese of Heraclea to first patriarchate of the whole East Council of Chalcedon 451, can. 28. Its effective power was consolidated through the appeals of the Eastern clergy to the emperors, transmitted from them to the bishop of Constantinople, Johannesburg/East Rand Map who presided over the permanent synod su,nodoj evndhmousa composed of visiting bishops. As for Jerusalem, the Council of Constantinople can. 7 recognized its bishop’s traditional honorific position avkoulouqi,a thj timhj, but was mindful of the metropolitan rights of Caesarea.
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