Illinois Travel on Explored not only in Neoliberalism as Exception but also in Ong's earlier work Flexible Citizenship (1999), graduated sovereignty refers to the practice, on the part of some East and Southeast Asian states, to set up special economic zones, in which labor market access, tax regimes, health and safety standards, industrial relations, environmental policies, and so on are regulated according to the market-driven logic of neoliberal governmentality. Such a logic, she explains, induces the coordination of political policies with corporate interests, so that developmental decisions favor the fragmentation of the national space into various noncontiguous zones, and promote the differential regulation of populations who can be connected to or disconnected from global circuits of capital (Ong 2006,77). In such instances of zoning, it seems the sovereign moment is restricted to the actual establishment or demarcation of the space in which neoliberalism works. From the point of view of governmentality, however, this is just another kind of space within and across which market calculations can be effected and optimized.
Such a view of how sovereignty and governmentality work off each other is not restricted to Ong's analysis of zoning technologies.
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It extends to her view of the various forms of migration and movement that establish the privileged corridors of lateral spaces. What are the implications ofthe exception that Ong believes to be generated by such combination for what we have called the sovereign machine of governmentality? According to Ong, sovereign power depends on a network of regulatory entities that channel, correct, and scale human activities in order to produce effects of social order.
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