I. Patristic exegesis

ADAM and EVE
I. Patristic exegesis – II. Iconography – III. Apocrypha. I. Patristic Exegesis. Among OT apocrypha are the following: 1 A Life of Adam and Eve in Latin, included also in the Apocalypse of Moses Greek, Armenian and Slavic, where an account by Eve of the temptation and fall has been added. A Georgian Book of Adam and some Coptic fragments go back to this Life. 2 The Struggle of Adam and Eve against Satan Ethiopian and Arabic: certainly a Christian writing, 2nd c., composed using Jewish material and centered on the burial of Adam on Golgotha. Origen and a pseudo-Athanasius knew this source. 3 The Cave of Treasures Syriac, Arabic, Ethiopian, part in Greek, with an account of the creation of Adam and Eve, as in the Struggle, a history of their descendants down to Melchizedek, and a summary of the history of the world from the death of Shem to that of Christ. This work, written in Syriac 4th c. and clearly of Christian inspiration, like the Struggle, drew on common Jewish sources. 4 The Testament of Adam Syriac, Arabic and Ethiopian. Some parts of this work, written before the 5th c., go back to the original late Jewish Book of Adam. 5 The eight Books of Adam Armenian: Christian writings translated from some 4th-c. Greek originals. 6 The Book of the Sons of Adam, known only through the 5th-c. pseudoGelasian decree. 7 The Book of Adam or Ghinza Treasure: sacred book of the Mandaeans. Some of its elements perhaps go back to the beginning of the Christian era, but the book is strongly antiChristian and anti-ascetic; Adam and Eve do not have an important role in it. 8 The Apocalypse of Adam: gnostic writing, 2nd or early 3rd c., inserted in the fifth position of codex V NH V, 5, 64- 65, composed along the lines of a Jewish apocalypse, strongly syncretic, summarizing for novices or non-initiates the doctrine of a sect tracing itself back to Seth Sethians. Epiphanius mentions the gnostic authors of an Apocalypse of A. Pan. 26,8 but does not say whether he has seen this work himself. The first Christian mentions of Adam and Eve, apart from the apocrypha and NT, are in Clement of Rome I Cor. 6,3; 29,2; 50,30 and Ep. Barn. 6,9; 12,5. In the Dialogue with Trypho, Justin Martyr writes that Adam was circumcised 19; that his body became the dwelling of a soul permeated by God 40; God’s words Let us make Gen 1:26 were addressed to his Word 62; Adam did not reach 1000 years of age 81; the virginal birth of Christ was foretold by Eve’s coming from Adam’s rib 84; Adam’s descendants fell under the power of death 88,94; God did not ask Adam where he was because he did not know 99; also see 100, 103, 124, 132. Melito of Sardis, following Barnabas, blames Adam alone for the Fall, and paraphrases Gen 13 Pass. 46-71. On the salvation of Adam, see also the Odes of Solomon 14 and the Gospel of Nicodemus. Tatian seems to be the only one to deny salvation to Adam 111, 17,4. The Letter to Diognetus, in its conclusion, which is composed of enthusiastic images, says: Eve is seduced no more but, remaining a virgin, proclaims her faith 12,8, a confused approximation of Justin Dial. 100,5, Irenaeus Adv. haer. 2,32,1 and Tertullian Adv. Marc. 2,4; De carne Christi 17. Theophilus of Antioch, ca. 180, in Ad Aut., presents Adam as an innocent youth in paradise 1,6; 2,24, neither wholly mortal nor wholly immortal 2,24, though he would have become so by his merits 2,27; he recounts in detail the story of the Fall, down to Seth 2,11-13.18-30. Theodotus the Valentinian offers a well-systemized and structured conception of Adam Exc. ex Theodoto. Irenaeus of Lyons addresses the gnostic challenge in Adv. haer. books 3-5 and in his Demonstration of the Apostolic Faith: Adam and Eve are the work of a good God who sees from the beginning the final end of their descendants. Youths, endowed with freedom, seduced but not destroyed, retaught by God through their descendants, made perfect in Christ the new Adam for Irenaeus, the progenitors signify the universality of the plan of salvation. Tertullian takes this up, explaining in his characteristic Christian Latin all that is taught about Adam and Eve in the Greek Bible, or that is inherited from the apologists or from commentators on Scripture such as Justin and Irenaeus.
Handbook of Patristic Exegesis: The Bible in Ancient Christianity … travelquaz

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