Guatemala Travel on Moreover, the war's conclusion, which spelled the end of four multinational empires in Europe, laid the foundations for an attempt (accomplished in Versailles under the decisive pressure of Woodrow Wilson) to accomplish redrawing the European map under the sign of the national. In some memorable pages, Hannah Arendt (1951) showed how the dream of nationalism turned into a nightmare for linguistic, national, and religious minorities in the historically heterogeneous territories of Central and Eastern Europe. Arendt's analysis can be retold from the perspective of the attempt to trace linear borders dividing territories that had long been considered marches or krajina (to mention a word that figures in the very name of Ukraine and was bound to become associated with ethnic cleansing in the 1990s during the wars in the Balkans). It was not by accident that the heyday of imperialism in the age of the scramble for Africa and its culmination in World War I witnessed the emergence of a new spatial discipline (and a new political rhetoric) that reframed the understanding of borders according to the crisis of a specific pattern of the world.
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Toward the end of the century, the Swedish scholar Rudolf Kjellen seems to have been the first to have coined the term geopolitics (Chiaruzzi 2011). This word's rapid circulation among German, British, and North American geographers and its popularity at the level of public discourse in the age of the world wars suggest that geopolitics was catching something relevant in the spirit of the age. The conflict between imperial powers that culminated in World War I marked the crisis of the conception of geographical space that evolved through the nationalization of the state in Europe and through the European imperial adventure, particularly that of the British Empire.
Guatemala Travel 2016.