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M. Forlin Patrucco II. Council. This, the fourth ecumenical council 451, was summoned by the emperor Marcian, who had just succeeded Theodosius II, on 14 May 451 for the following autumn. It was to resolve the arguments raised by the spread of monophysitism, which had triumphed at the Council of Ephesus of 449 but through proceedings so irregular as to arouse violent reactions, especially, but not only, in the East i.e., at Antioch and from Leo the Great. Greece Subway Map Leo was represented by a delegation presided over by Paschasinus of Lilybaeum. The council was originally convened at Nicaea but was then transferred, at the emperor’s wish, to Chalcedon, nearer to Constantinople, and opened on 8 October in the church of St. Euphemia, in the presence of more than 500 bishops and some representatives of the emperor. Paschasinus, who had been made president of the assembly at Leo’s request, immediately brought a charge against Dioscorus and other protagonists of the Council of Ephesus of 449. After the reading of that council’s acts came the rehabilitation of Flavian of Constantinople, its main victim, and a proposal to depose Dioscorus, Juvenal of Jerusalem and other bishops with monophysite leanings. At the session of 10 October, in the absence of Dioscorus, the other accused and the Egyptian bishops, the imperial commissioners proposed that debate be opened on the doctrinal questions and that a new formula of faith be reached. The proposal aroused perplexity, since Leo himself had requested that this question not be touched, and the Council of Ephesus of 431 had forbidden the use of formulas of faith other than that of Nicaea of 325. It was also clear that the assembly’s opinions on the subject were very conflicting. Faced with the commissioners’ insistence, they began by reading the documents relating to the christological controversy, including Cyril of Alexandria’s texts and Leo’s Tomus ad Flavianum, while Cyril’s anathemata were passed over in silence.

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