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With Justin, we move in a different world, with the need to explain Christian faith and practice. Christians are considered immoral by some, ignorant by others, faithless by the Jews, and irrational by all: Justin defends and explains. Everyone may observe the changed lives of Christians, a result of their conversion. Those who once lived unworthily now follow the one unbegotten God and pray that their enemies may know the true God. Love for enemies is the distinctive sign of the Christian 1 Apol. 14-16. Frankfurt Subway Map Justice and love are joined in the one commandment given by the one God. The new law takes the place of the old: the law given on Horeb is no longer valid. Christ is the eternal and definitive law Dial. 11, 2 for all rational creatures, human beings who by nature know right from wrong. This universal justice is summed up in the dual precept of love for God and for the living rational being who is our neighbor Dial. 93. Against any kind of determinism, Justin maintains that human beings are rational and capable of choosing between just and unjust: otherwise there could be no hope of salvation for humanity, Frankfurt Subway Map and morality would be a matter of opinion 1 Apol. 28. If there were no free will, human actions would be neither praised nor blamed, and people would not unexpectedly change from good to bad and from bad to good 1 Apol. 43, 1. God puts off judgment of the world so that human beings can choose salvation 2 Apol. 7, 1. Justin uses a new word, autexousios Dial. 88, 102, 144, to bring out the fact of human free choice.
Clement of Alexandria has left us the first complete treatment of Christian morality in daily life as it progresses toward perfection. Right reason should govern all human behavior. Virtue is a harmonious rational state that follows the order of the universe. Frankfurt Subway Map Lustfulness, like any fault, puts things out of place and throws nature into confusion: it is irrational since it subverts the end of the person. With this Stoic insistence on life in accordance with nature, Clement gives detailed instructions for every aspect of life. One reason for this attention was a gnostic sect that taught a heavenly justice and defended sexual communism among those who wished to reestablish the higher order. Clement also insists, against Marcion, on the unity of justice and goodness.
In Clement we find a strong ethical monism and an interest in detailed prescription. His presentation of love includes both loving union with God and the good works that spring from this love Quis div. salv. 27-28. Love of God is the path to perfection, because the more a man loves God, the more closely he enters God ibid.. Love of neighbor develops together with love for God. Perfection consists in martyrdom, which reveals the perfect work of love Strom. IV, 4, 14, but the true gnostic anticipates heaven on earth and worships God with his whole life; he lives in continual mental prayer, giving undivided attention to God Strom. VII, 7, 43. This is the first exposition of Christian perfection and spirituality, which would dominate subsequent religious life.
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