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An abbreviated form of responsorial psalm was the responsorium, which corresponded to the particular readings of the liturgy of the hours. Benedict’s Rule chs. 9-11 alludes to readings cum responsoriis suis, i.e., collections of responsoria drawn from the psalms and harmonized with the readings. In the 9th c. other forms of responsoria, not taken from the Psalms, appear: they were often historical in the sense that they commented on the feast and were taken from Scripture and from hagiographical legends. Frankfurt Map Tourist Attractions Outside the Roman liturgy the use of nonbiblical compositions of a poetic nature began earlier. Some Pauline epistles contain fragments of these liturgical hymns see Wellesz, The Earliest Example. Gnostics and Arians used new compositions to propagate their own doctrines. Ambrose composed several liturgical hymns in opposition to those of the Arians Lodi, op. cit., 61. Because of the danger of heresy, Rome remained reluctant until after the 11th c. to accept hymns into the liturgy, making an exception for the oldest hymns, such as the Gloria in excelsis and the Te Deum. Benedict used the Ambrosian hymns for the liturgy of the hours, though in 563 the Council of Braga had condemned the use of hymns in the liturgy Leclercq, Hymnes, 2911. The West had other renowned authors of hymns besides Ambrose: Prudentius, Sedulius and Venantius Fortunatus see Walpole, Early Latin Hymns. In the East, hymnology flourished from the 4th c. Among the main composers were Ephrem of Edessa and Severus of Antioch. In the 6th c. the Byzantine liturgy introduced other forms of hymns, such as Kontakia and Canons, many of which were composed by Romanus Melodus, Andrew of Crete and John of Damascus.

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