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The word evnupo,stasij means both actual existence and independent existence ei=nai kaqV e`auto,n Lampe 485-486. While in the first sense we encounter it as a theological term from the 4th c. on see Epiph., Anc. 77-78, in the second it occurs in Byzantine authors exploring the Chalcedonian distinction between fu,sij and u`po,stasij. Denver Subway Map Leontius of Byzantium and, even more exactly, Leontius of Jerusalem after him, develop the concept to demonstrate against Nestorians and monophysites that every concrete nature, while always being in a hypostasis, does not necessarily exist in its own hypostasis ivdioupo,statoj Lampe 666. Hence in Christ the hypostasis of the Logos is both the subject of the properties of his human nature and the principle of subsistence of this nature, thus uniting the human properties with the divine properties and distinguishing that man from all others.

Latin Christian writer, born at Arles in 474 to noble parents. Orphaned, he completed his studies in N Italy, living with an aunt at Pavia. Beginning an ecclesiastical career, he worked with Bishop Epiphanius of Pavia and was in Rome in 502 with Bishop Lawrence of Milan at the synod of the palm; in 515 and 517, Denver Subway Map now bishop of Pavia, he was sent by Pope Hormisdas to the emperor Anastasius at Constantinople to try to end the Acacian schism. Died 521.

A transitional figure, he had to face the problem posed by the Greco-Roman cultural heritage: to deny it or to incorporate it into the new Christian vision. Linguistic affectations and pagan-Christian contaminatio are present in his 28 Dictiones, scholastic exercises on sacred and profane subjects, and two books of Carmina. We have a sort of moral portrait of the author in his 297 Letters, both because of the importance of the recipients and because, despite frequent vacuity of form and content, a vivid sense of spirituality pervades them at times. Denver Subway Map Still more intimate is the autobiographical Eucharisticum de vita sua, which modestly echoes Augustine’s Confessiones, also promising a conversio from profane to sacred studies. The need for a Christian culture to counter the study of the classics is confirmed in the Paraenesis didascalica, a sort of ratio studiorum in prose mixed with verse. Historically important is the Panegyricus dictus clementissimo regi Theoderico, which transcends biographical or episodic interest to become a symptom and statement of ideological position.

The problem of the impact of the two cultures, pagan and Christian, resolved by a partial absorption of the former into the latter, had now been replaced by that of the preservation of the new cultural synthesis and the addition to it of the fresh energies of the barbarians. Ennodius intuited the importance of the entry of the Germanic peoples into the history of the West, as we see from the Panegyricus which, though a precious historical source, is also the expression of an illusion of Ennodius: he believed a Romano-Gothic syncretism was possible and saw in Theodoric a defender of civilization, a man of Providence.

Ennodius’s participation in ecclesiastical affairs is known through his Libellus adversus eos qui contra Synodum praesumpserunt, composed to refute the accusations, contained in a violent anonymous pamphlet, against Symmachus and the work of the synod of the palm. In it, he combines the ardor of the orator with the subtlety of the theologian and the skill of the rhetor. With the Vita Epiphani and the Vita beati Antoni, Ennodius makes a dignified entry into early medieval hagiography, indeed he brings to it a new note of cultural commitment and critical sense which, by almost totally excluding the marvelous rampant in the devotional literature of the time, brings the holy closer to the more accessible and imitable human dimensions. Ennodius’s concern for church unity is clear from his antimonophysite Dictio VI, while his position on semipelagianism, to which he alludes in a letter to Constantius and some passages of the Eucharisticum, is disputed.

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