Born at Marseille or Arles ca. 475, he was a pupil and follower of Caesarius of Arles. As bishop of Touloun he took part in numerous Gallican councils from that of Arles of 524 to that of Orléans of 541, in which questions regarding grace and predestination were discussed. On Caesarius’s death he was commissioned with the writing of his biography by Caesaria, second abbess of the female monastery founded by Caesarius at Arles. The work, in two books, one of the most important products of Gallican hagiography, was written with the help of collaborators the two bishops Firminus and Viventius, the presbyter Messianus and the deacon Stephen but displays a unitary plan and a solid structural harmony. Cyprian is also author of a letter to Maxim, bishop of Geneva, in which he defends himself against the charge of theopaschism. He died before 549 date of the Council of Orléans, in which his successor Palladius participated. Venerated as a saint and copatron of the city of Touloun, his feast is 3 October.
CPL 1020-1021; Vita Caesarii: CPL 1018; BHL 1508-1509; PL 67, cols. 1000-1024; MGH, Script. rer. Merov. 3, 433-501; S. Caesarii episcopi opera omnia 2, Maretioli 1942, 296-323; La Gaule chré- tienne: Vie de saint Hilaire d’Arles. Vie de Césaire d’Arles, Paris 1997; L. Duchesne, Fastes épiscopaux de l’ancienne Gaule 1, Paris 1907, 208; C. Wawra, Ein Brief des Bischofs Cyprian von Toulon an des Bischofs Maximus von Genf: ThQ 85 1903 575- 594; P. Lejay, Le rôle théologique de Césaire d’Arles: RHL 10 1905 217-266; BS 3, 1280-1281; F.E. Consolino, Ascesi e mondanità nella Gallia tardoantica, Naples 1979, 73ff.; W. Berschin, Biographie und Epochenstil im lateinischen Mittelalter, 1, Stuttgart 1986, 249ff.; W.E. Klingshirn, Caesarius’s Monastery for Women in Arles and the Composition and Function of the Vita Caesarii: RBen 100 1990 441-481; Patrologia IV, 297-299.