It is a fascinating fact that modern Cukurova lies within the greographic outlines of the Kingdom of Kizzuwatna, a vassel of the Hittites, and that its borders are the same as those of Cilicia, as it was called by the Romans. Thus, for more than 3000 years there have been written records of the people who have inhabited this area. Cukurova is bounded on the south by the warm and sparkling Mediterranean Sea, and on the north by the mighty, snow-capped Taurus Mountains. It is blessed with many rivers and streams which add to its fertility and provide moisture for irrigating its vast orange, lemon and banana orchards. The mild climate and rich earth make four annual crops of vegetables possible in the valleys, and on the plains cotton flourishes. Beginning in the west the Calycadnus (Gok-su) River commands the Karamanian Pass. Through Tarsus is the present Tarsus River, known to the Romans as the Cydnus. Adana lies on the Seyhan, formerly known as the Sarus, and the Ceyhan River, which was the Pyramus of the Romans, winds through the Cukurova plain. Between the Calycadnus and the Cydnus was the section the Romans called Cilicia Aspera or rough Cilicia; to the east is the plain known as Cilicia Campestris.
The division is the same today. This ancient, beautiful land has been the route of migratory peoples and invading armies from the dawn of history. It has sheltered prehistoric people from Neolithic times; offered defense to the Hittite Federation, been conquered by Assyrians, the Persians, Alexander the Great, and has trembled under the marching feet of the Roman legions. The Byzantines established many fortresses and churches in Cukurova, but they could not stop the invading Arabs and Seljuk Turks. When the First Crusade arrived through the Cilician Gates in the 11th. century, they found Byzantine, Arab Turkish and Armenian elements vying for control of the area. Finally, in 1077 AD, Kutulmus Suleyman Shah, who had established the Seljuk Kingdom in Anatolia, subdued Cilicia. It was in the first part of the 16th century that Cilicia formally became a part of the Ottoman Empire. between compartments. In the ceilings of the compartments are skylights. There is a spring in the third compartment. The roof of the shipyard is flat.