Among the coverings for the head, one should note the pileus, a tall and narrow beret, especially in the ancient examples, which remained then as a priestly insignia, conical in shape, tapered off on the top, or rather rounded off. At Rome, preference was given to the short and roundish pileus. The one worn by the Magi was typically Eastern, a rather high spherelike ending, tilted forward Phrygian beret.
At Byzantium, the pileus continued in the skiadion scholars, however, are not in agreement on this point. With regard to the the pileus, however, there is a significant amount of confusion, and the term was often used to refer to berets of various styles. The tiara was also a fez type of pileus like that worn by the peoples of northeastern Asia, or a diadem in the shape of a modiolus with stripes at the back, or in the style of the Phrygian beret. It seems, however, to have been connected to a character of distinction like that of the pontifical tiara, which was a high and conical Phrygian beret even if more often the tiara was shorter and not conical. In ancient times there existed a short type with straps under the chin used more often than not by the women mitella. The crown could be a standard precious circle for the tiara or the mitre.
Even the kamilavka i.e., a pressed down beret could have a diadem around also connected over the head by precious bands. Among the other types of pilei, one should note the skufi,a and the galerus both round caps. One could also wear a small pallium on the head connected behind the neck. The women then more often used a simple veil, but also a type of headdress in the form of a kamilavka or a turban with another veil see the arcosolium of Veneranda in the cemetery of Domitilla at Rome. The petasos, however, was a hat with a large brim and a low back, tied under the chin or behind the back of the head, different from the pilei.
Given that many types of male and female clothing were common to the two sexes, let us only state that the women in particular made a greater use of the Dalmatian type, which was often very elegant. They then made use of narrow bands above their inner tunics to lift up their breasts, and they used the short tunic, which also had no sleeves, called the colobium. They also put on the palla like the shawl, in the Greek manner and directly on the skin or even in the esomid way or like a shawl. As was said, they made extensive use of the veil as well as nets for hair. The nuptial veil was called the flammeum.
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