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Christianity in Arabia

Christianity in Arabia I. Evangelization – II. Council – III. Language and literature – IV. Archaeology. I. Evangelization. The term Arabia is vague: the first meaning of “Arabs” was “nomads.” There was a Syrian province called Beth Arabayé, centered on Nisibis, which the Greeks called Arabia. Southern Palestine, the area north of Mt. Sinai and east of Damascus in Haurân bore the name “province of Arabia.” Finally, Arabia Felix was Aden or Yemen, Eden or even “India Felix,” according to Eusebius of Caesarea, who placed Bartholomew’s apostolate there, though there is no other evidence for this HE V,10,3. Eusebius also mentions Beryllus of Bostra VI, 20 and a synod of many bishops held at Bostra in Haurân VI, 20, ca. 240. R. Devreesse has summarized what little is known about the arrival of Christianity in Arabia. Philippopolis, in Haurân today Shahba, owes its name to the emperor Philip the Arab 224–249, who seems to have been, if not Christian, at least favorable to Christianity. Pharân in the Sinai peninsula was already a monastery in 330 according to Jerome; Ammonius’s account seems apocryphal. In the Negev a Nabataean kingdom centered on Petra until 106, then a Roman province, Sozomen HE VI, 38 relates the sending of a bishop Moses to the queen of Phoinikon and the conversion of the phylarch Zokom, recognized by Nöldeke as a name of the Ghassanids of Dagva’ma: this is to have occurred ca. 375–380 see R. Devreesse, Le Christianisme dans la province d’Arabie: Vivre et Penser 1942 112-113; Id., Le Christianisme dans la péninsule sinaïtique: RBi 49 1940 205-223; Id., Le Christianisme dans le sud Palestinien: RSR 20 1940 235-251. In the NE, Hîra was a bishopric from 410, and some, though not all, Arab princes were Christians see G. Rothstein, Die Dynastie der Lahmiden in al Hira, Berlin 1899, 18-40 and 139-143. In S Arabia a bishop, Theophilus the Indian, was sent by the emperor Constantius to the cities of Yemen. He built churches at Cofar Aden and Hormuz. This mission seems to be confirmed by the disappearance of the names of the kings of Mârib from the pagan temple in 378 or 384. Malkîkarib or his father T’aran seems to have been the phylarch converted by Theophilus J. Ryckmans, Le Christianisme en Arabie du Sud préislamique, in L’Oriente Cristiano nella storia della civiltà, Rome 1964, 413-454; Fr. Altheim’s objections in Die Araber in der Alten Welt, v. 4, Berlin 1967, 306-317 are unconvincing. The entire history of Arabia until Heraclius has been taken up again in an extremely interesting series of volumes, in which the political role of the Arab princes and their titles are rightly paralleled with the most illustrious dignitaries of Byzantium I. Shahîd, Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Washington DC 1984; Id., Byz. and the Ar. in the Fifth Century, Washington DC 1995. This opus is today indispensable for any student of Christian Arabia, even if its theses on the 4th c. are not unanimously agreed upon; the bibliography is very thorough, and the epigraphical sources represent a leap forward. M. van Esbroeck II. Council. In Arabia Petraea VArabi,a, Arabia a council was called between 246 and 250 or 244– 249 to correct some errors on the survival of the soul: Eusebius HE VI, 37 says that, according to the arabici, as Augustine later called them De haer. 83, the soul dies with the body and returns to life at the resurrection hypnopsychism. Meetings were held in which some bishops of Arabia took part: 14 according to the Libellus synodicus unreliable. The meetings had little effect in convincing the arabici until the arrival of Origen, who, according to Eusebius, dispelled the error with his doctrinal knowledge. Eusebius, HE VI, 37; Augustine, De haer. 83; Nicephorus Call. V, 23; Mansi I, col. 790; Hfl-Lecl I, 1, 163-164; DHGE 3,1165-1166: Palazzini 1,78; see Origen, Dial. Cum Heracl.: SC 67, 76-110; see 17.19-21.37-46. III. Language and literature. Christian Arabic does not differ substantially from the koine of the Qur’an. The orthographical notations of the hamza never existed, and vocabulary was influenced by the original language. J. Blau wrote a Grammar of Christian Arabic CSCO, 267, 276 and 279, Louvain 1966, 1967 based on 9th- and 10th-c. MSS. Arabic script, though derived from Nabataean, also resembles Syriac; both derive from Aramaic. The inscriptions of Zebed 512 and Harrân 568 are both Christian see A. Grohmann, Arabische Paläographie, v. 2, Vienna 1972, 7-34. I. Shahîd thinks that the letter sent ca. 520 by the inhabitants of Najrân, written in their language and translated into Syriac by an interpreter, was written in Arabic see I. Shahîd, The Martyrs of Najrân: New Documents, Brussels 1971, 242-250. Adiyy ibn Zaid alIbâdi d. 604 could read Arabic and was Chosroes Aparwez’s translator. Yaqût gives the text of the funerary inscription of Hind, daughter of Hârith ibn Amr 554–570. Ibn Qutaiba d. 889 cites an excellent Arabic translation of Gen, apparently translated before him. Arabic MSS of the Bible are numerous in the 9th c.; their text has the division of pericopes characteristic of the preByzantine rite. All these arguments make possible, but do not prove, the existence of a pre-Islamic Arabic version of the Bible, see J. Henninger, NZMW 17 1961 206-210. G. Graf ’s monumental work Geschichte der Christlichen arabischen Literatur, published in 4 vols. in Studi e Testi 118, 133, 146 and 147 from 1944–1951, remains the irreplaceable summary in the field of Christian Arabic literature, though it has been surpassed and improved on many points. The “Bulletin d’Arabe Chrétien,” directed since 1976 by K. Samir, tries to extend its bibliography. The wealth and quantity of Christian Arabic literature derive from its position in the development of four centuries of Christianity and in the transmission of the traditions of Greek science and philosophy, which it contributed to introducing, in several stages, into Arab-Muslim philosophy and science. The oldest MSS, which bear the colophons of Anthony of Baghdad, 885, translate Greek ascetic and hagiographical texts. They are in the archaic language, less touched by classicism than later writings. Other texts have been translated from Palestinian Aramaic, others from Syriac up to a very late date, and finally a large number have been translated from Coptic, when that language began to lose ground. Continuity was increased, in the Syriac field, by the Karshuni script, which wrote Arabic with Syriac characters to preserve the tradition, at least in the form of the alphabet. In studying the first translations, which include all the literary genres of the time, we note that more than once the Arabic has preserved details lost in our surviving Greek models. An example shows this well: Cyril of Scythopolis’s Life of St. Cyriacus, a 6th-c. classic of Greek hagiography, has in its Arabic version a paragraph on the mission of a certain Thomas, sent by the bishop of Jerusalem to Ethiopia. This paragraph was censured in the Greek, at the time when Ethiopia was separated from official orthodoxy, but is in a 13th-c. Arabic codex. This Arabic text served as a model for a Georgian version in an 11th-c. MS. It follows that we must postulate numerous lost ancient Arabic MSS see G. Garitte, La vie géorgienne de Saint Cyriaque et son modèle arabe: Bedi Kartlisa 28 1971 92-105. Observations of this kind can be extended to hundreds of anonymous Christian Arabic texts from the early period. To this first layer of literature belong the biblical, patristic, canonical, apocryphal and pseudepigraphical writings reviewed in the 696 pages of Graf’s first volume. The literature of translation was succeeded by autonomus activity in which several genres are represented. Among the Melkites, patristics continued with Theodore Abu Qurra and an antiIslamic apologetic literature, and with a series of chroniclers and historians: one of the most accurate was undoubtedly Yahya ibn Yahya of Antioch, to whom all of the historians of the years 938–1027 refer. Particularly among the Nestorians, the tradition continued that of Hina. Hunain ibn Ishaq born 808, the most celebrated of the translators, translated the main Greek scientific works from the Syriac. He was surrounded by a pleiad of predecessors and imitators. The Jacobite Yahya ibn Adi 893–974 founded a school frequented by renowned Muslim philosophers and various Christians; his works fill pp. 239-249 of Graf’s vol. II, and many of his works have been published today, by E. Platti, Samir Khalil Samir and others. The numerous works of Sidney H. Griffith on Theodore Abu Qurrah The Reformation of Morals of Yahya ibn ‘Adi, Provo, UT 2002, with Arabic text completely vocalized have recently gained significant ground for students of the language. The controversial literature has been developed, esp. under the impetus of Samir Khalil Samir, with the magazine Islamocristiana as its outstanding organ. Monographs have also appeared, such as G.B. Marcuzzo, Le dialogue d’Abraham de Tibériade avec ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Hašimi à Jérusalem vers 820, Rome 1986. On the Coptic side, until the 15th c. the mass of sometimes anonymous authors and commentaries is no less extensive. The history of the patriarchs of Alexandria, commonly transmitted under the name of Severus Sawirus ibn al-Muqaffa, will always be the basis of all monographs on the Coptic church. G. Graf’s last two volumes are dedicated to authors from the 15th to the 19th c., reviewing them systematically as Arabicspeaking Melkites, Maronites, Syrians, Copts and even Armenian Catholics. This literature is linked to the evolution of each church, reflecting its preoccupations, liturgy, law and theological thought. It is not possible to enumerate here such a vast collection; it is enough to point out that Graf’s index, which appeared in 1953, contains nearly 10,000 proper names. J. Henninger, Arabische Bibelübersetzungen vom Frühmittelalter bis zum 19 Jahrhundert: NZMW 17 1961 201-224; R.G. Coquin, Langue et littérature arabes chrétiennes, in M. Albert et al., Christianismes orientaux, Paris 1993, 35-106; F. Sezgin, Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums, I-IX, Leiden 1967-1984; D.V. Proverbio, Le versioni arabe dei Vangeli, in I Vangeli dei Popoli, ed. F. D’Aiuto et al., Vatican City 2000, 67-70; R.G. Hoyland, Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to Coming of Islam, New York 2001. M. van Esbroeck IV. Archaeology. Archaeological research has made it clear that the Byzantine period was the province’s most active, with the presence of churches and monasteries in cities, villages and on the eastern steppe. The mosaic floors found are related in some way to the mosaic school that flourished at Madaba. Moving from S to N, the first center after Arnon is Diban, famous for the discovery of the stele of Mesha. Prior to excavation a small church was visible on the W side of the hill, later destroyed to use its stones for new buildings. Excavations have brought to light a large threeaisled, single-apsed church on the site of the ancient Nabataean temple, with an oratory on the N side, also apsed. Another church is located at the S city gate: its baptistery, with square basin, is preserved. Christian architraves of houses are preserved, one with a cross inscribed in a circle. To the NW is Machaeron, the place of St. John the Baptist’s beheading. No church has been found on the hill where the fortress is located, called Mishneqah; however, at the village at its E foot, Mukawer, there are three churches: one in the W sector of the ruins was built over a crypt and had a floor mosaic, done in 602; another was at the center of the village and the few remaining letters of the dedicatory inscription report the name of Malechios, bishop in the first half of the 7th c.; further N has been found an apsed chapel, which must have been part of a larger complex Piccirillo, Le antichità: SBF 45 1995 293- 318. Nearby to the SE, the village of Koriatha, inhabited in the first centuries by Jews, has the remains of a church. E of Diban are the ruins of Umm al-Rasas which, thanks to excavations underway since 1986, has been definitively identified with the biblical town of Mephaath Jos 13:18; 21:37; 1 Chr 6:64; Jer 48:21. Excavations of what had to be the Roman castrum recorded in the Notitia Dignitatum and the urban area to its N have brought to light some churches adorned with floor mosaics of notable quality. The most monumental ecclesiastical complex is that of St. Stephen. Composed of a series of sacred buildings, it is at the extreme N of the urban area and was developed from the 6th to the 9th c. At the center of the complex is the church dedicated to the Proto-Martyr; its floor mosaic represents nine cities of the Transjordan including Kastron Mefa’a itself, eight cities of Palestine and twelve of the Nile delta Piccirillo-Alliata, Umm alRasas I. Notable among the other excavated buildings still in the quarter N of the castrum is the Church of the Lions, whose mosaic has another representation of the city of Kastron Mefa’a; the Church of St. Paul and the nearby Chapel of the Peacocks; the Church of the Tabula Ansata with the contiguous Church of the Priest Wa’il near the NW corner of the city wall; and the twin churches within the castrum, built into the wall in the SE corner. Halfway between Umm al-Rasas and Madaba is the village of Nitl, where an ecclesiastical complex has been excavated, in all probability linked to the Bani Ghassan, the Arab Christian tribe allied with the Byzantines who controlled this part of the Limes Arabicus Piccirillo, The Church of Saint Sergius at Nitl: SBF 51 2001 267-284; Shahîd, The Sixth-Century Church Complex at Nitl: SBF 51 2001 285-292. Madaba has become a famous center mainly for the geographic mosaic that adorns the floor of the Church of St. George: the work was executed in the 6th c. and portrays the Promised Land seen by Moses from the top of Mt. Nebo. Excavations have delineated 1 the city’s urban plan, with churches and other buildings, 2 the order of the bishops of Madaba, known almost solely by the inscriptions, and 3 the territorial extent of the diocese. Mt. Nebo comprises two hills: one to the S called el-Mukhayat, on which arose the ancient city of Nebo; the other to the W, called Siyagha, from which Moses traditionally viewed the Promised Land. Both have churches with mosaics and inscriptions. Monastic buildings and churches have been found on the slopes of the mountain near the “springs of Moses” Ayun Musa and the spring Ayn al-Kanisah see Saller-Schneider, Memorial of Moses; SallerBagatti, Nebo; Piccirillo-Alliata, Nebo New. A village of the diocese of Madaba is Ma’in Saller-Bagatti, Nebo, 227; Piccirillo, Madaba, 226- 253; Piccirillo, Mosaics, 195-204, where the ruins of four churches have been found, with capitols of excellent quality Vaccarini, I capitelli di Ma’in: SBF 39 1989 213-242. One of the churches preserves mosaics done in 719 containing representations of Palestinian cities. A xenion for pilgrims has also been found. The village of Abu Sarbut, where the ruins of three churches have been found, probably also belonged to the diocese of Madaba. In the same diocese was Zizia, a town where a church has recently been discovered with an unusual N-S orientation, in whose mosaic flooring one reads the dedicatory inscripition from 559 Piccirillo, La chiesa del Vescovo Giovanni a Ziziah – Madaba: SBF 51 2001 368-372. EsbousEsbounta, now Esban, has been explored in recent years, and three churches have been discovered with mosaic floors: one on the Acropolis and one at the N foot of the hill. In the latter was found a marble reliquary with silver theca still in situ. Also, part of this diocese must have been the village of Massuh, 3 km 1.9 mi E of Esbous. Two churches have been found there: one on the E slope of the ruins that had two flooring levels in mosaic, another to the N more recently discovered Piccirillo, Mosaics, 252-254; Piccirillo, Una nuova chiesa nel villaggio di Massuh – Madaba: SBF 50 2000 494-498. Philadelphia-Amman: the city, the Ammonite capital Rabath Ammon, saw the death of many Christian martyrs Bagatti, Antiche chiese di Filadelfia: SBF 23 1973 261-285. Traces of six churches remain: a church and a chapel on the Acropolis; one perhaps below probably the cathedral where the great Ommayade mosque is; a church dedicated to St. George as shown by an inscription found among the ruins mentioning Bishop Polyeuctos. Another church was on the Gerasa Road, its plan known to past explorers but now destroyed, and probably dedicated to the martyr Aelianus Saller-Bagatti, Nebo, 225f.. A funerary chapel has been found on the Jabal al-Akhdar. Near ancient Philadelphia to the S is the village of Quweismeh, with two churches: one was threeaisled until an 8th-c. restoration, when it was made two-aisled; it has a floor mosaic with depictions of two churches and of animals, Greek inscriptions and a Syriac inscription, from which we know that the building was renovated in 717–718; the other church, only partially excavated, was dedicated to St. Cyriac Piccirillo, Mosaics, 262-270. Still to the S, in the village of Yadudah, there was a church of which remains only the transcription of a Greek inscription dated 502–503. On the road going S another church has been excavated at Kh. al-Suq. To the W, at Suwayfiyeh, a small church has been found with grape harvest scenes on its mosaic floor and a mention of old Thomas. To the NW is Kh. al-Kursi, where there is a chapel with many mosaics. At Khildah, N suburb of Amman, a church has been excavated with two aisles and two apses, the S apse with two flooring levels; inscriptions indicate that the church was dedicated to St. Varus, and that the upper mosaic was done in 687. In the town of Jubeiha, near the university, a church was found. Also at Yajuz, a town approx. 10 kms NE of Amman, two churches have been found, one of which was dedicated to St. Theodore. Further N, in Gerasa, more than any other city, it is possible to follow the development of the Christian community and the installation of churches in its urban zone Piccirillo, Arabia, 115-135. Eighteen churches have been found. The cathedral is datable to the 5th c. The fountain there is where Epiphanius of Salamis’s story probably should be located, according to which every year water is changed into wine in memory of the miracle at Cana. Nearby is the Church of St. Theodore, and the Church of the Prophets, Apostles and Martyrs, likewise datable to the 5th c. The 6th c., and esp. Justinian’s reign, was a period of renewed splendor for the entire province of Arabia.; many of Gerasa’s ecclesiastical buildings are from that period. Particularly noteworthy are the three Churches of St. George, St. John the Baptist, and Sts. Cosmas and Damian, built side by side between 529–533. In the central-plan church dedicated to the Baptist, the mosaic floor has, among other things, figures of donors and a representation of the months. Still in the first half of the 6th c., Bishop Paul built the Church of Procopius and that of Sts. Peter and Paul, and even had a synagogue transformed into a church. The building activity continued throughout the 6th c. and into the first decades of the 7th; the church built by Bishop Genesius is from 611. Beyond the N gate of the city, a cemetery with an octogonalplan church has recently been discovered SallerBagatti, Nebo, 225; 269-289; Piccirillo, Mosaics, 271- 300; Michel, Les Églises, 224-274. NE of Gerasa rises the sanctuary of St. Elijah, or Mar Liyas, on a hill near the ruins of LestebTisbeh, thought to be the prophet’s birthplace Saller-Bagatti, Nebo, 223. Archaeological excavation has uncovered the Byzantine basilica already known to explorers of the region Piccirillo, Arabia, 104. E of Gerasa, along the route of the Via Nova Traiana, previously in the diocese of Bostra, is Khirbet al-Samra Saller-Bagatti, Nebo, 225; Piccirillo, Mosaics, 304-309; Humbert – Desreumaux, Fouilles de Khirbet al-Samra, 27-62, where a number of cemeterial inscriptions have been found: some are in Christo-Palestinian Aramaic, others in Greek, and they give many names of inhabitants. Excavation of the ruins has brought to light eight churches, including those of St. John the Baptist, St. George and St. Peter. At Rihab, at least 15 churches built from 534 to 686 have been identified, dedicated to St. Sophia, St. Peter, St. Stephen, St. Basil martyr of Scythopolis, St. Menas, St. Isaiah, St. Mary, St. Paul and St. Constantine, St. John the Baptist, St. Sergius, and St. George. In the inscriptions are found many names of inhabitants, both clergy and laypeople, and those of Polyeuctos, Theodore and George, 7thc. metropolitans of Bosra. Halfway between Rihab and Kh. al-Samra is Khayan al-Mushref, where five churches have been found. Still further N is Jaber Saller-Bagatti, Nebo, 223, which has yielded architraves with crosses and an inscription from 531–532 that adds the name of a bishop, Agapius, to the list of bishops of the nearby city of Adraa Mittmann, Beiträge, 190-194. Not far away Umm al-Jimal, surrounded by walls, had 15 quite well-preserved churches Saller-Bagatti, Nebo, 224; Michel, Les Églises, 166-182. Graffiti in the defensive tower echo the Bible, esp. the Psalms. Further E is Umm al-Quttain, in which seven churches are preserved. All of these places are in Jordan, whereas the dioceses of Haurân are today in Syrian territory. For early Christianity the latter was the area of Kaukabe, recorded by St. Epiphanius as the central see of the Hebrew Christians, both Nazarenes and Ebionites. Notable are the Christian remains reused in the architraves of Sahel el-Jaulan, and pillars used in the michrab of Sheikh Sa’ad Bagatti, Ricerche: SBF 11 1961 292-295. In this area should be located the traditions surrounding Job, collected by Eusebius in the Onomastikon, passed down by Christian pilgrims from Egeria and taken up again by Muslim sources. Even today in the village of al-Markaz there is a Maqam Ayyub, a small sanctuary containing a cenotaph in memory of Job Piccirillo, Arabia, 111- 112. The sources record various dioceses in the region: Ere, Neapolis, Eutimia, Neela, Canatha, Maximianopolis today Shaqqa, Philippopolis today Shahba, Dionysias today Suweidah, Constantia, Zorava and Phaena. Due to lack of excavations, research has often stopped at the results of surface surveys done in the 19th c. The many Christian inscriptions were collected and studied initially by W.H. Waddington Inscriptions Grecques et Latines de la Syrie, Paris 1870. Regarding Maximianopolis, Devreesse based on an inscription from the year 71, which he believes to be crypto-Christian holds that Christianity developed very early. In the region of Leja, W of Haurân, the best-known city is Zorava, today Ezra, where two churches are still in use: one dedicated to St. George, an octagonal apsed plan with four large niches in the corners, dated 515, and the other to St. Elijah, cruciform with a jutting apse Lassus, Sanctuaires, 142, 148. Further N, Der Jauni has a church covered with arches and stone slabs Lassus, Sanctuaires, 53, also dedicated to Elijah; at Phaena today Mismiyeh the Tycheion is the prototype of Syrian churches in a cruciform plan Lassus, Sanctuaires, 143f.. Regarding Rima today Rimet elLohf to the SE, Devreesse records Le Patriarcat d’Antioche, 240 an inscription with an acrostic ichthus accompanied by three crosses that suggests a quite ancient Christianity. W.H. Waddington, Inscriptions Grecques et Latines de la Syrie, Paris 1870; H.C. Butler, Early Churches in Syria, Princeton 1929; S. Saller – H. Schneider, The Memorial of Moses on Mount Nebo, Jerusalem 1941-1947; R. Devreesse, Le Patriarcat d’Antioche depuis la paix de l’Église jusqu’à la conquête arabe, Paris 1945; J. Lassus, Sanctuaires chrétiens de Syrie, Paris 1947; S. Saller – B. Bagatti, The Town of Nebo, Jerusalem 1949; B. Bagatti, Ricerche su alcuni antichi siti giudeo-cristiani: SBF 11 1961 292-295; Id., Le antiche chiese di Filadelfia-’Amman: SBF 23 1973 261-285; E. Testa, Il simbolismo dei giudeo-cristiani, Jerusalem 1962; S. Mittmann, Beiträge zur Siedlungs- und Territorial-Geschichte des nördlichen Ostjordanlandes, Wiesbaden 1970; G. Vaccarini, I capitelli di Ma’in: SBF 39 1989 213-242; M. Piccirillo, Chiese e mosaici della Giordania settentrionale, Jerusalem 1981; Id., Chiese e Mosaici di Madaba, Jerusalem-Milan 1989; Id., The Mosaics of Jordan, Amman 1993; Id., Le antichità cristiane del villaggio di Mekawer: SBF 45 1995 293-318; M. Piccirillo – E. Alliata eds., Umm al-Rasas – Mayfa’ah I. Gli scavi del complesso di Santo Stefano, Jerusalem 1994; J.-B. Humber – A. Desreumaux eds., Fouilles de Khirbet es-Samra en Jordanie, Turnhout 1998; M. Piccirillo – E. Alliata eds., Mount Nebo: New Archaeological Excavations 1967–1997, Jerusalem 1998; M. Piccirillo – E. Alliata eds., The Madaba Map Centenary 1897– 1997, Jerusalem 1999; M. Piccirillo, Una nuova chiesa nel villaggio di Massuh – Madaba: SBF 50 2000 494-498; Id., The Church of Saint Sergius at Nitl: A Centre of the Christian Arabs in the Steppe at the Gates of Madaba: SBF 51 2001 267-284; Id., La chiesa del Vescovo Giovanni a Ziziah-Madaba: SBF 51 2001 368-372; I. Shahîd, The Sixth-Century Church Complex at Nitl, Jordan: The Ghassanid Dimension: SBF 51 2001 285-292; A. Michel, Les églises d’époque byzantine et umayyade de Jordanie Provinces d’Arabie et de Palestine Ve -VIIIe  siècle. Typologie architecturale et aménagements liturgiques avec catalogue des monuments, Turnhout 2001; M. Piccirillo, L’Arabia cristiana, Milan 2002; B. Hamarneh, Topografia cristiana ed insediamenti rurali nel territorio dell’odierna Giordania nelle epoche bizantina ed islamica V-IX sec., Vatican City 2003.Christians Arrested at Prayer Meeting During Anti-Christian Sweep … travelquaz

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