CHALCEDON

I. Historical outline – II. Council. I. Historical outline. Bithynian city Chalkedon, Kalchedon, today Kadiky on the Bosphorus opposite Constantinople, founded by colonists from Megara in 685 BC see Strabo, XII, 4, 2,563 C. It came under the Persians in 387 and was later liberated by Alexander. Situated in a highly favorable position, it drew prosperity and well-being not so much from its own territory as from commercial traffic on the Bosphorus which is why it paid a huge tribute to Athens. It became a Roman city in 74 BC when King Nicomedes IV of Bithynia bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans. It was severely sacked by the Scythians in the reign of Valerian. Dionysius of Byzantium described the city’s site Geogr. Graeci Minor. II, 93, fr. 67. It had a bishop very early: a late Greek tradition says that its first bishops were Paul’s disciples Crescens and Tychicus: but the first known bishop is one Theocritus, 2nd-3rd c. After the council of 451 it became an ecclesiastical metropolis, though without suffragans; previously it had been dependent on Nicomedia.

Source: Travels Finders

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