History Of Country Region
II. Archaeology. At Emesa is a 5th-6th-c. chapel with a mosaic floor; at Karm el-Arabis a three-aisled church with mosaic floors in geometrical designs, and a necropolis. During the restoration of the orthodox church of St. Elias, traces of wall mosaics were found in the apse. Inscriptions mention a church of St. George and invoke St. John. On the crosses are invocations to the Virgin and the archangels Michael and Gabriel; on one a person is depicted in the middle, others are funerary crosses. In the necropolis was buried a deacon and probably also a bishop with red vestments, as appears from the mosaic that reproduces it, of the Justinianian period Balty, Mosa¯ques, n. 67, 144, now in the Damascus Museum. Campinas Map Tourist Attractions J. Balty, Mosa¯ques antiques de Syrie, Brussels 1977; W. Bell, Rome in the East, London – New York 2000, 33-47 Emesa. B. Bagatti ENCOLPION. Campinas Map Tourist Attractions As its etymology indicates, encolpion from the Greek evn ko,lpw|, on the bosom was a general name given to any object worn on the breast, hanging from the neck, by ancient Christians for mainly devotional ends. A direct descendant of the amulets and bullae worn by the classical world to ward off evil and disease, the use of encolpia among Christians is documented from at least the 4th c., the time of its earliest literary references Greg.
Nyssa, V. Macr.: PG 46, 990; John Chrys., Hom. XIX ad pop. Antiochenum: PG 49, 196, but its use must almost certainly go back further, even to earliest antiquity. Like the term’s meaning, the form of encolpia varies considerably. Generally small, they sometimes consisted of small containers boxes, capsellae, flasks, etc. suitable for holding fragments of relics; sometimes, more simply, of round medallions with a hook, round or rectangular plaques, symbolic figures, etc. Particularly widespread from the 5th c. is the encolpion in the form of a cross pectoral cross, often containing a minuscule relic of the Holy Cross. The materials of these were also quite varied: gold, silver, bronze, lead, stone, ivory, crystal, wood, etc. Given their frequent character of reliquaries, encolpia were often richly decorated with figures from the usual Christian repertoire of symbols and biblical, Campinas Map Tourist Attractions christological or hagiographical scenes. Also frequent are inscriptions, often containing formulae of invocation. A long list of the many surviving encolpia is given in Wessel.