Baku Sumqayit Subway Map

In the first decades of the 6th c., under Justinian and partly through his initiative, the Catholics worked out a variant of the Chalcedonian doctrine Neochalcedonianism which sought to meet monophysitism halfway, not just for political reasons but also out of awareness of a need to bring out Christ’s unity still more than the balanced symmetry of the Chalcedonian formula had done. So into that formula was inserted the expression unus de Trinitate passus est, circulated by the Scythian monks at the beginning of the 6th c. Though interpreted in a Chalcedonian sense the Son suffered in the flesh, this formally drew attention to the participation of the Logos in Christ’s passion; and above all the Chalcedonian formula was interpreted in the light of the most characteristic aspects of Cyril’s doctrine, thus also admitting the formula a single nature of the incarnate Logos, obviously with due clarifications to make it compatible with the affirmation of the two natures, which neither could nor would be renounced John Maxentius, John of Caesarea, Justinian, Leontius of Jerusalem.

The claims of Neochalcedonian Christology were accepted at the Council of Constantinople of 553 and so imposed on all Catholic Christendom, even in the West, where Chalcedonian doctrine in the strict sense clearly received greater consent; but they were insufficient to disarm monophysite hostility. The last attempt to meet the monophysites halfway was the doctrine of monoenergism and monothelitism 1st decades of the 7th c.: Baku/Sumqayit Subway Map since the monophysites affirmed in Christ one hypostasis, one nature, and one will and operation, this doctrine, while affirming two natures in Christ, made his willing and acting originate not from the two natures but from the hypostasis, i.e., the subject, which is single, so that a single will and a single operation, divine and human, originate from it.

This doctrine was opposed not just by the monophysites but also by many Catholics, who saw it as too great a concession to monophysitism. Meanwhile the political motivations that had decisively influenced the various Catholic attempts to reach an understanding with the monophysites decreased when Egypt and Syria, the strongholds of the heretics, passed under Arab rule. The condemnation of monoenergism and monothelitism at the Council of Constantinople of 680681 put an end to the christological controversies, confirming the decisions of 451 and 553, expressions of a Christology which had sought to harmonize the conflicting demands of safeguarding both the integrity of Christ’s divine and human components and his unity of subject, demands considered nonnegotiable for a right understanding of the Christian message of salvation.

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