ARMENIAN LANGUAGE and LITERATURE

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ARMENIAN LANGUAGE and LITERATURE. Indo-European language, the first written literary and epigraphical evidence of which dates from the first half of the 5th c. Fragments of an earlier, even pre-Christian, oral epic literature have occasionally been transmitted by later historians. Alphabet. After a failed attempt by Daniel the Monk ca. 350?, the present alphabet, inspired by the Greek, was composed ca. 400 by St. Mesrob. Golden age before 451?. Mesrob gathered around himself a group of disciples who probably translated some Greek fathers Cyril of Alexandria, John Chrysostom, Basil of Caesarea, Eusebius of Emesa and Severian of Gabala and historical works, such as Eusebius of Caesarea’s Chronicon and Ecclesiastical History; Ephrem the Syrian and Aphraates were translated from the Syriac. The first examples of an original literature are from the same era: Eznik’s De Deo and Koriun’s Life of Mesrob. The Bible was also translated: the Armenian “vulgate” depends on Greek models, but at least for the gospels, there are traces of another version, perhaps older, derived from the Syriac Diatessaron. Silver age 2nd half 5th c.?. From this phase, in which the language gradually moved away from the “classical” models of the previous period, are the Histories of Lazarus of Pharp, the so-called Agathangelos and perhaps the first draft of Moses of Khorene. Liturgical texts Jerusalem Lectionaries, Anaphora of Basil and canonical treatises were translated from the Greek, as well as ps.-Callisthenes, Gregory of Nazianzus, Hesychius of Jerusalem In Iob and Athanasius Vita Antonii. Hellenophile age 2nd half 6th c.. This age is characterized by the literalism of translations, applied rigorously esp. to philosophical or rhetorical texts Porphyry, Aristotle, Dionysius Thrax but also to other authors, such as Irenaeus or Philo. The reasons for the use of this translation technique are not clear, and its results must have often been incomprehensible to the Armenian reader although there were “parallel” translations from the Syriac from roughly the same period. The fact that the most literal translations were of philosoph ical, rhetorical and scientific texts suggests a scholastic milieu, whose conventions were then applied to other types of translation. The philosophical translations are at the origin of an incipient Armenian philosophical school, in which David the Philosopher stands out with his Commentary on Porphyry’s Categories. Theological thought. In the 2nd half of the 6th c. the Armenian church’s anti-Chalcedonianism was embodied in a polemical literature represented esp. by the treatise On the Council of the Dyophysites and the letters of Vrthanes K’erdol 550–617. Abraham of Albatanzi’s correspondence tells us of the subsequent secession of the church of Georgia. The dates of doctor Elisaeus, though much disputed, must go back to the 6th c. At the start of the 7th c. the phantasiastae sect took root in Armenia, a Eutychian group that denied the reality of Christ’s incarnation. John of Otzun’s catholicos 718–729 treatise Adversus phantasiastas tells us about the group, which had already been attacked by the Seal of faith ca. 630. 7th-c. authors include Sebaeos, author of a History of Heraclius, and the polymath Ananias of Shirak ca. 600–670, who composed some mathematical treatises, notable among them the Geography Ashkharhatsoyts, passed down under the name of Moses of Khorene. The dates of many works traditionally attributed to the classical period are today contested: see John Mandakuni, Mambre Vercanol, doctor Elisaeus and Moses of Khorene. In the literary traditions of the East, Armenian was often used as an intermediary between Greek originals and Georgian versions. The Agathangelos and the Narratio de rebus Armeniae were translated into Greek from Armenian originals. The Armenian migrations of the Middle Ages resulted in the differentiation of two dialects: Eastern spoken in the Armenian Republic and Western in Cilicia and the Western diaspora. The political vicissitudes of the Middle Ages caused the loss of considerable portions of the Armenian literary heritage. Patrologia V, 575-607; K. Sarkissian, The Council of Chalcedon and the Armenian Church, London 1965; P. Grousset, Histoire de l’Arménie, Paris 1947; M. Abegjan, Istorija drevnearmjanskoj literatury I, Erevan 1948; H. Thorossian, Histoire de la littérature arménienne, Paris 1951; V. Inglisian, Die armenische Literatur, Armenisch und kaukasische Sprachen Handbuch der Orientalistik I, 7, Leiden-Cologne 1963, 157-250; K. Sarkissian, A Brief Introduction to Armenian Christian Literature, London 1960; G. Bolognesi, La tradizione culturale armena nelle sue relazioni col mondo persiano e col mondo greco-romano, in La Persia e il mondo greco romano  , Rome 1966, 569-603; Ch. Renoux, La littérature arménienne, in M. Albert et al., Christianismes orientaux: introduction à l’étude des langues et des littératures Initiations au christianisme ancien, Paris 1993, 107- 166; R.W. Thomson, A Bibliography of Classical Armenian Literature to 1500 AD, Turnhout 1995; V.N. Nersessian, A Bibliography of Articles on Armenian Studies in Western Journals, 1869–1995 Caucasus World, Richmond Surrey 1997. Alphabet: C. Gugerotti, L’invenzione dell’alfabeto in Armenia: teologia della storia nella Vita di Maštoc’ di Koriwn: C. Moreschini – G. Menestrina, La traduzione dei testi religiosi. Atti del convegno tenuto a Trento  1993 Religione and Cultura 6, Brescia 1994, 101-126; J.R. Russell, On the Origins and Invention of the Armenian Script: Muséon 107 1994 317-331. Translations: G. Zarbhanalean, Matenadaran Haykakan t’argmanowt’eanc’ naxneac’ Library of Armenian translations, Venice 1889; P. Sukias Somal, Quadro delle opere di vari autori anticamente tradotti in armeno, Venice 1825; S. Weber, Ausgewählte Schriften der armenischen Kirchenväter. III, Munich 1927; J. Muyldermans, Répertoire de pièces patristiques d’après le catalogue arménien de Venise: Muséon 47 1934 265-292; M. Morani, Situazioni e prospettive degli studi sulle versioni armene di testi greci con particolare riguardo agli storici, in M. Pavan – U. Cozzoli eds., L’eredità classica nelle lingue orientali Acta Encyclopaedica 5, Rome 1986, 39-46; J.J.S. Weitenberg, The Language of Mesrop: l’arménien pour lui-même?, in Armenia and the Bible: Papers Presented to the International Symposium held at Heidelberg  1990 University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies 12, Atlanta 1993, 221-231; J.J.S. Weitenberg, Eusebius of Emesa and Armenian Translations, in J. Frishman – L. Van Rompay, The Book of Genesis in Jewish and Oriental Christian Interpretation: A Collection of Essays Traditio Exegetica Graeca 5, Louvain 1997, 163-170; A. Ouzounian, Le discours rapporté en arménien classique Bibliothèque des cahiers de l’Institut linguistique de Louvain 63, Louvain-la-Neuve 1992; L. Ter-Petrosian, Ancient Armenian Translations  , New York 1992, 1-46 also in French; G. Bolognesi, Studi e ricerche sulle antiche traduzioni armene di testi greci L’eredità classica nel mondo orientale. Serie monografica 1, Alexandria 2000; R. Sgarbi, Traduzioni armene di testi greci fra linguistica e filologia, in Autori classici in lingue del Vicino e Medio Oriente. Atti del VI, VII and VIII Seminario sul tema: “Recupero di testi classici attraverso recezioni in lingue del Vicino and Medio Oriente” Milan, 5-6 October 1987; Naples, 5-6 December 1988; Bologna, 13-14 October 1989, ed. G. Fiaccadori  , Rome 2001, 115-122. Bible: J.-P. Mahé, Traduction et exégèse: réflexions sur l’exemple arménien: Mélanges Antoine Guillaumont. Contributions à l’étude des christianismes orientaux Cahiers d’orientalisme 20, Geneva 1988, 243-255; Ch. Burchard, Armenia and the Bible: Papers Presented to the International Symposium held at Heidelberg  1990 University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies 12, Atlanta 1993; V. Nersessian, The Bible in the Armenian Tradition, Los Angeles London 2001. OT: C.E. Cox, The Armenian Translation of Deuteronomy, Chicago 1981; S.P. Cowe, The Armenian Version of Daniel University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies 9, Atlanta 1992; J.J.S. Weitenberg, Parallel Aligned Text and Bilingual Concordance of the Armenian and Greek Versions of the Book of Jonah, Amsterdam 1992; S.P. Cowe, Problematics of Edition of Armenian Biblical Texts, in H. Lehmann – J.J.S. Weitenberg, Armenian Texts: Tasks and Tools Acta Jutlandica 69:1. Humanities Series 68, Aarhus 1993, 26-37. NT: S. Lyonnet, Les origines de la version arménienne et le Diatessaron, Rome 1950; L. Leloir, Citations du Nouveau Testament dans l’ancienne tradition arménienne. I, A-B: L’Évangile de Matthieu CSCO 283-284subs. 30-31, Louvain 1967; B.M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament  , Oxford 1977, 153-181; S. Ajamian – M.E. Stone, Text and Context: Studies in the Armenian New Testament: Papers Presented to the Conference on the Armenian New Testament May 22-28, 1992 University of Pennsylvania Armenian Texts and Studies 13, Atlanta 1994; G. Uluhogian, I Vangeli in Armenia, in I Vangeli dei Popoli. La Parola e l’immagine di Cristo nelle culture e nella storia, eds. F. D’Aiuto – G. Morello – A. Piazzoni, Vatican City 2000, 53-59. Hellenophile school: Ch. Mercier, L’École hellénistique dans la littérature arménienne: REArm 13 1978-79 59-75; A. Terian, The Hellenizing School: Its Time, Place and Scope of Activities Reconsidered, in N.G. Garsoïan et al. eds., East of Byzantium: Syria and Armenia in the Formative Period, Washington 1982, 175-186; V. Calzolari – M. Nichanian, L’école hellénisante, in M. Nichanian, Âges et usages de la langue arménienne, Paris 1989, 110- 142; J.J.S. Weitenberg, On the Interpretation of Postclassical Armenian Linguistic Data, in H. Lehmann – J.J.S. Weitenberg, Armenian Texts: Tasks and Tools Acta Jutlandica 69:1. Humanities Series 68, Aarhus 1993, 65-74; J.J.S. Weitenberg, Linguistic Continuity in Armenian Hellenizing Texts: Muséon 110 1997 447-458; R. Sgarbi, Questioni di traduttologia armena in prospettiva interlinguistica, in La diffusione dell’eredità classica nell’età tardoantica e medievale. Il “Romanzo di Alessandro” e altri scritti. Atti del Seminario internazionale di studio Rome-Naples, 25-27 September 1997, eds. R.B. Finazzi and A. Valvo L’eredità classica nel mondo orientale 2, Alexandria 1998, 273-279. V. Langlois, Collection des historiens anciens et modernes de l’Arménie I-II, Paris 1869; G. Dédéyan, L’immigration arménienne en Cappadoce au XIe  siècle: Byzantion 45 1975 41-117; C. Mutafian, La Cilicie au carrefour des empires I-II CEA 113, Paris 1988; H. Kaufhold, Die armenischen Übersetzungen byzantinischer Rechtsbücher I: Allgemeines; II: Die “Kurze Sammlung” “Sententiae Syriacae” Forschungen zur Byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte 21, Frankfurt a. M. 1997; C. Hannick, La chronographie grecque de l’antiquité tardive et sa réception dans l’historiographie arménienne, in La diffusione dell’eredità classica nell’età tardoantica e medievale. Il “Romanzo di Alessandro” e altri scritti. Atti del Seminario internazionale di studio Rome-Naples, 25-27 September 1997, eds. R.B. Finazzi – A. Valvo L’eredità classica nel world orientale 2, Alexandria 1998, 143-155; W. Belardi, Lingua e scrittura alle origini della cultura armena cristiana: Rendiconti dell’Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei f. 9, 12 2001 181-220.Armenian language – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia travelquaz

ARMENIAN LANGUAGE and LITERATURE

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ARMENIAN LANGUAGE and LITERATURE

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ARMENIAN LANGUAGE and LITERATURE

Armenian Language and Literature travelquaz

ARMENIAN LANGUAGE and LITERATURE

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