APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS

APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS. A great late 4thc. canonical-liturgical work in eight books. Its author took various earlier works and rewrote them, keeping some sentences or phrases of the earlier text and making additions or modifications of varying importance: the whole is presented as Injunctions diatagai or diataxeis addressed by the apostles and presbyters to all believers scattered among the nations I prol.; VIII, 4,1 and transmitted by Clement of Rome VI, 18, 11; VIII, 46, 13; 47, 85. The basis of books I-VI is the Didascalia Apostolorum, adapted to the evolution of institutions and with some prescriptions mitigated. Book VII comprises three parts: 1 chs. 1-32, an amplification of the Didache; 2 chs. 33-38, five prayers of praise to God, seemingly modeled on Jewish prayers; 3 chs. 39-45, a Christian initiation ritual with echoes of the baptismal ritual of the Apostolic Tradition, here much more developed. The book ends with various appendixes 46-49: a list of the bishops ordained by the apostles; short prayers for morning Gloria in excelsis Deo like that of the Roman Mass, evening and meals. Book VIII also has three parts: 1 chs. 1-2, a treatise on charisms, certainly based on that preceding the Trad. Apost.; 2 chs. 3-46, a rearrangement of the Trad. Apost., developed in detail except for the baptismal ritual already dealt with in book VII; these chapters are sometimes called the Clementine liturgy; 3 ch. 47, the 85 Apostolic Canons, using the apocryphal Clementine letter to James and a conciliar collection known elsewhere which contained the canons of Nicaea 325, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch and Laodicea these two used in more detail, and Constantinople 381. Traces of Arianism in the text Bibl., 112-113 were already noticed by Photius. The name of this Arian was recently discovered. In 1973 D. Hagedorn edited an unpublished Arian commentary on Job and proved by numerous indisputable parallels that the same author, an anomoian named Julian, wrote the Apostolic Constitutions and the pseudoIgnatian letters. I believe that he was bishop of Neapolis near Anazarbus and can thus be identified with Julian, the Cilician bishop and partisan of Eunomius mentioned by Philostorgius. However, at the time he wrote the Apostolic Constitutions he no longer openly attacked the homoousios as in the commentary but confined himself to opposing the doctrinal consequences to which the homoousios seemed to lead, such as that Christ was ungenerate and without beginning. He also kept his distance from Eunomius, rejecting baptism by single immersion, clearly because of its condemnation by the Council of Constantinople of 381. The modification of his position is explained by circumstances. After the accession of Theodosius I in 379 and the council of 381, the creed became the rule of the empire; no one could risk contradicting it. So the Apostolic Constitutions are after 381 but before the Council of Constantinople of 30 October 394, which refers to book VIII, 47, 74. Besides complete copies of the Apostolic Constitutions, there were soon many partial copies, some just of book VIII: one such constitutes books IV-VIII of the Syriac collection known as the Clementine Octateuch; the Greek document usually called the Epitome of book VIII or Constitutions of Hippolytus is also an abridged copy. Others contain just the 85 canons which end book VIII, known as the Apostolic Canons. Canon 2 of the Council in Trullo of 692 repudiated the Apostolic Constitutions as containing heterodox passages but allowed the Apostolic Canons, since they already had a place in the conciliar collections. With these canons, Julian’s work exercised a certain influence on the history of ecclesiastical law in East and West, but it seems to have had little importance in the evolution of liturgy. CPG 1731; PG 1, 509-1156 Lat. tr. by J.B. Cotelier, 1724; F.X. Funk, Didascalia et Constitutiones apostolorum, 2 vols., Paderborn 1905 repr. Turin 1962; P.A. de Lagarde, Constitutiones apostolorum, Leipzig 1862 repr. Osnabr¼ck 1962; M. Metzger, Les Constitutions apostoliques, SC 320 1985; 329 1986; 336 1987. Translations: Lat.: PG 1, 557-1155; important intr. by Cotelier; Funk above; Fr.: Metzger, above; Ger.: F. Boxler, Die sogenannten Apostolischen Constitutionen und Canones, Kempten 1874 BKV 17-333; Eng.: J. Donaldson, The Constitutions of the Holy Apostles: Ante-Nicene Fathers, 385-505; It.: D. Spada and D. Salachas, Costituzioni dei Santi Apostoli per mano di Clemente, Urbaniana Univ. Press, Rome 2001. Studies: DACL 3, 2732-2748 bibl.; DTC 3, 1520-1537; DDC 4, 453-459 bibl.; Coptic Encyclopedia 2, 451-453; F.X. Funk, Die apostolischen Konstitutionen, Rottenburg 1891; E. Lanne, Les ordinations dans le rite copte, leurs relations avec les Constitutions apostoliques et la Tradition de s. Hippolyte: OrSyr 5 1960 81-106; D. Hagedorn, Der Hiobcommentar, Berlin 1973, XXXVII-LVII; J. Magne, Tradition Apostolique sur les charismes et Diataxeis des saints Ap´tres, Paris 1975, 107-192; P. Sigal, Early Christian and Rabbinic Liturgical Affinities: Exploring Liturgical Acculturation: NTS 30 1984 63-90; D.A. Fiensy, Prayers Alleged to Be Jewish: An Examination of the Constitutiones Apostolorum, Chico, CA 1985; A. Enermalm-Ogawa, Un langage de pri¨re juif en grec. Le tmoignage des deux premiers livres des Maccabes, Stockholm 1987; D.A. Fiensy, The Hellenistic Synagogal Prayers: One Hundred Years of Discussion: Journal Stud-Pseud 5 1989 17-27; Th. Kopecek, Neo-Arian Religion: The Evidence of the Apostolic Constitution, in R.C. Gregg, Arianism: Historical and Theological Reassessments, Philadelphia 1985, 153-179; B. Steimer, Vertex traditionis. Die Gattung der altchristlichen Kirchenordnungen, Berlin 1992, 114- 133; M. Metzger, La fidlit dans le mariage selon le tmoignage des Constitutions Apostoliques: RDC 442 1994 1-15; P.F. Beatrice, Traditions apocryphes dans la Thosophie de T¼bingen: Apocrypha 7 1996 109-122; E.M. Synek, Diese Gesetz ist gut, heilig, es zwingt nicht , Zum Gesetzsbegriff der Apostolischen Konstitutionen, Vienna 1997; A.H.B. Logan, Post-Baptismal Chrismation in Syria: The Evidence of Ignatius, the Didache and the Apostolic Constitutions: JTS 49 1998 92-108; E.M. Synek, Oikos. Zum Ehe- und Familienrecht der Apostolischen Konstitutionen, Vienna 1999; M.E. Bottecchia Deh², Nota a un testo delle Costituzioni Apostoliche, Libro VIII, capitolo 46: OCP 66 2000 173-183; M. Metzger, Pages fminines dans les Constitutions Apostoliques, in Crossroads of Culture. Studies in Liturgy and Patristics in Honor of Gabriele Winkler, H.-J. Feulner et al. eds., Pont. Oriental Inst., Rome 2000, 515-541; J.G. Mueller, L’ancien Testament dans l’ecclsiologie des P¨res. Une lecture des Constitutions Apostoliques, Turnhout 2004. The Apostolic Constitutions – Kindle edition by Anonymous … travelquaz

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