APOPHTHEGMATA PATRUM

APOPHTHEGMATA PATRUM. The apophthegmata, or Paterika, of the Fathers are collections of reflections and anecdotes that are the fruit of the spiritual experience in the desert. The number of collections, their rapid spread from the 4th c., their continual enrichment, their translation first into Latin, Coptic and Syriac; then into Armenian and Georgian; and finally into Arabic, Ethiopian and Palaeoslavonic has thus far rendered vain any attempt at genealogy. Basic work has been done in some fields of research; others remain almost entirely unexplored, even at the MSS level. The first attempt at a classification was by W. Bousset Apophthegmata. Studien zur Geschichte des ¤ltesten Mnchtums, T¼bingen 1923. Since then the bibliography has reached considerable size. Due to space, we will limit ourselves to indicating the main publications, by language. Greek: alphabetical collection. According to PG 65, 76-440, to be supplemented by the collection of MS Coislin Greek 126, published by F. Nau in a series of articles in the Revue de l’Orient Chrtien from 19071909, supplemented by J.C. Guy, Recherches sur la tradition grecque des Apophthegmata Patrum, Brussels 1962, who distinguishes, among other things, between the systematic collection and the derived collection. Also Coislin 127, which contains the largest collection known to date. Also important are Palladius’s Historia Lausiaca, ed. Dom Cuthbert Butler, Cambridge 1904; the Historia monachorum in Aegypto, ed. A.J. Festugi¨re, Brussels 1961; the Scala Paradisi of John Climacus, PG 88, 677-781; the Pratum spiritualis of John Moschus, PG 87, 3,2852-3112; the Spiritual Works of Dorotheus of Gaza, ed. L. Regnault, Paris 1963 SC 92; and finally the huge compilation of Paulus Evergetinos, published at Athens in 4 vols., 19571968. The sayings are rearranged and modified in every collection. Latin. Though old, Rosweyde’s compilation, Vitae Patrum, Anvers 1628, remains exhaustive. Reproduced in PL 73, its 10 parts are attributed to Jerome, Rufinus, John Cassian, Pelagius, John deacon, Paschasius of Dumium, Palladius, Theodoret and John Moschus, plus appendixes. A critical edition of Paschasius’s collection was produced by J.G. Freire, A vers£o latina por Pascasio de Dume dos Apophthegmata Patrum, 2 vols., Coimbra 1971; the collection is from the 7th c. That of Paschasius and John is derived from the Greek systematic collection. Finally, Freire found a 5th-c. Latin collection: Commonitiones sanctorum Patrum. Una nova colle§£o de apotegmas, Coimbra 1974. Syriac. Three types of collections have been brought together by P. Bedjan in vol. 7 of the Acta Martyrum Paris 1897, fully used by Bousset. The oldest testimonies have been classified in two works published by R. Draguet: Les cinq recensions de l’Ascticon syriaque d’Abba Isa¯e, CSCO, v. 189, 290, 293 and 294, script. Syri 120-124 Louvain 1968; Les formes syriaques de la mati¨re de l’Histoire Lausiaque, CSCO, v. 389, 390, 398 and 399, script. Syri 169, 170, 173 and 174 Louvain 1978. Coptic. A. Guillaumont, L’ascticon copte de l’Abb Isa¯e, Cairo 1956. The complete Coptic and Syriac sayings have been studied for over a century: Coptic text and Fr. tr. in ‰. Amlineau, Histoire des monast¨res de la Basse-‰gypte. Vies des saints Paul, Antoine, Macaire  , Paris 1894; M. Cha®ne, Le manuscrit de la version Copte  Sahidique des Apophthegmata Patrum, Cairo 1960; with intr., Coptic text and It. tr. Paolo di Tamma, Opere, ed. T. Orlandi, Rome 1988; for the life and fragments of Pachomius in Coptic: Appendix, La R¨gle de St. Pach´me, fragments coptes, in Pachomiana Latina, eds. A. Boon – L. Lefort, Louvain 1932; Les vies coptes de St. Pach´me et de ses premiers successeurs, ed. L. Lefort, Louvain 1943; Oeuvres de St. Pach´me et de ses disciples, ed. Id., Louvain 1956, CSCO Coptici 23-24; Le vie de St. Pach´me selon la tradition copte, ed. A. Veilleux, Abbaye de Bellefontaine 1984 Greek lives edited by F. Halkin, Brussels 1932, SH 19; Pachomius’s Athens corpus in BHG 1396a, 1399a and 1397, Geneva 1982. For the Syriac versions: E. Budge, The Paradise of the Holy Fathers, I-II, 1907, repr. Washington 1984; Id., The Syrian Version of the Apophthegmata Patrum by ‚nn Žsho’ of Bªth-‘‚bhª, Oxford-London 1924; R. Draguet, La Vie primitive de St. Antoine conserve en syriaque, Louvain 1980 CSCO 418, 104- 112; L. Abramowski, Vertritt die syrische Fassung die urspr¼ngliche Gestalt der Vita Antonii?, in Mlanges A. Guillaumont, Geneva 1988, 47-56; R. Lorenz, Die griechische Vita Antonii des Athanasius und ihre syrische Fassung: ZKG 100 1989, 77-84. Armenian. The Mekhitarists of Venice published two volumes of compilations in the last century, which have been translated into a literal Latin by L. Leloir, Paterica armenica a PP. Mechitaristis edita 1855 nunc latine reddita, in CSCO, vols. 353 and 361 Louvain 1974 and 1975. Urgently needed investigation of the MSS has not yet begun. Arabic. The Arabic tradition of the letters of St. Anthony already published in PG 40, 972-1066 and translated by A. Louf, Saint Antoine, Lettres, Abb. Bellefontaine 1976 has been studied by S. Rubenson, The Arabic Version of the Letters of St. Antony, in Actes du deuxi¨me congr¨s international d’tudes arabes chrtiennes, Rome 1986 OCA 226 and M. ElMask®ne, St. Antoine asc¨te selon l’‰vangile, suivi de les vingt Lettres de st. Antoine selon la tradition arabe, Abb. Bellefontaine 1993. In the last quarter-century scholars have also researched the rich spirituality of the desert fathers and mothers from different angles, with publications on the theme multiplying, whether scientific as those of J. Pollok, The Present State of Studies on the Apophthegmata Patrum, in The Spirituality of Ancient Monasticism, Krakow 1995, 79-89, F. Dodel, Das Sitzen der W¼nstenv¤ter: eine Untersuchung anhand der Apophthegmata Patrum, Freiburg 1997, Paradosis 42, or B. M¼ller, Der Weg des Weinens: die Tradition des Penthos in den Apophthegmata Patrum, Gttingen 2000, Forschung zur Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte 77, containing among other things a rich bibliography or more popular but also rigorous such as that of M. Driot, Les p¨res du dsert. Vie et spiritualit, Paris 1991, It. tr. Cinisello B. Mi 1993, and the collections of L. Mortari, Vita e detti dei Padri del Deserto, I-II, Rome 1985, 3 1990, or L. Cremaschi, Vita di Antonio, Apoftegmi, Lettere, Cinisello B. Mi 1984; Id., Detti inediti dei Padri del deserto, Bose 1986; Id., La Parola e la preghiera nei Padri del deserto: Parole di Vita 2 1989, 48-55, or of H. Hanakam, Antonios der Grosse, Stern der W¼ste, Freiburg i.B. 1989, besides the new critical editions of the texts, among which stands out the systematic collection of sayings with French translation edited for Sources Chrtiennes by J.-C. Guy, Les Apophtegmes des P¨res: collection systmatique. Chapp. I-IX, Paris 1993, SC 387. In the same series is also a recent critical edition with French translation of the Vita Antonii of St. Athanasius already in PG 26, 835-978 and translated into German in the Bibliothek der Kirchenv¤ter 31, Munich 1917, and by A. Gottfried, Athanasius, Vita Antonii, Graz 1987; the anonymous Latin version has been critically edited and translated in Vita di Antonio, intr. C. Mohrmann, ed. and comm. G.J.M. Bartelink, Milan 1974: Athanase d’Alexandrie, Vie d’Antoine, ed. G.J.M. Bartelink, Paris 1994, SC 400, ed., prefaced and prepared by Id., Die literarische Gattung der Vita Antonii: Struktur und Motive: VC 36 1982 38-62. See A. de Vog¼, La Vie de St. Antoine, in Histoire littraire du mouvement monastique dans l’antiquit, I, Paris 1991, 17-80; Id., The Specificity of Christian Monasticism: The Life of St. Antony: Monastic Studies 19 1991 23-32. Other works of individual fathers have been edited and translated in the SC, e.g., those of Cassian already in PL 49-50: Jean Cassien, Institutions, ed. J.-C. Guy, Paris 1965, SC 109; Confrences, ed. E. Pichry, Paris 19551959, SC 42-54-64, or of Evagrius: Evagre le Pontique, Trait pratique ou le moine, eds. A. and C. Guillaumont, I-II, Paris 1971, SC 170-171; Le gnostique, ed. Id., Paris 1989, SC 356. On Evagrius, published in German are Evagriuss Pontikos, Briefe aus der W¼ste, ed. G. Bunge, Trier 1986, Sophia 24, and ber die acht Gedanken, ed. Id., W¼rzburg 1992. The Centurie of Callistus and Ignatius, the Greek text of which are in PG 147, 635-812, have been translated by A. Rosenberg, Das Herzensgebet  die Centurie der Mnche Kallistus und Ignatius, Munich-Planegg 1955. We have now the critical text of Palladius’s Historia Lausiaca of G.J.M. Bartelink, with It. tr. and intr., Milan 41990, besides the translation by J. Laager, Z¼rich 1987. Useful are the lexicographic tools of P. Miquel, Lexique du dsert, Abb. Bellefontaine 1986, and Le vocabulaire de l’exprience dans la tradition patristique, Paris 1989. V. Arras published the Ethiopic collections in CSCO, 238, 239 and 277, 278 Louvain 1963, 1967. Finally W. Veder began a better classification of the Slavonic collections, later completed by M. Capaldo, L’azbucnoierusalimskij Paterik: Polata k’nigopic’naja 4 1981 26-75. A coherent genealogical tree of all the translations, including the Sogdian version, still awaits. Les Apophtegmes des P¨res du dsert, Abbaye de Bellefontaine 1966; P.F. Anson, Partir au dsert, Paris 1967; S. Frank, Mnche im fr¼hchristlichen „gypten, D¼sseldorf 1967; Abb Isa¯e, Recueil asctique, intr. L. Regnault, Abb. Bellefontaine 1970; Les Sentences des P¨res du dsert, II-III, eds. L. Regnault – Moines de Solesmes, Solesmes 1970-76; Athanase, Vie et conduite de notre p¨re st. Antoine, intr. G. Couilleau, Abb. Bellefontaine 1979; G. Vannucci, Le parole dei Padri del deserto, Florence 1979; I. Hausherr, Solitude et vie contemplative d’apr¨s l’hsychasme, Abb. Bellefontaine 1980; Palladius, Histoire Lausiaque, Paris 1981; N. Russell, The Lives of the Desert Fathers, London-Oxford 1981; E. Brunner, Die Kopten, Cologne 1982; H. Bacht, Das Verm¤chtnis des Ursprungs, II: Pachomius, W¼rzburg 1983; B. Outtier et al., Lettres des P¨res du Dsert, Abb. Bellefontaine 1985; Les Sentences des P¨res du dsert. Srie des anonymes, ed. L. Regnault, Abb. Bellefontaine and Solesmes 1985; F.S. Pericoli Ridolfini, Il lavoro nelle pi¹ antiche fonti monastiche Vita di Antonio e fonti pacomiane, in Spiritualit  del lavoro, ed. S. Felici, Rome 1986, 141-150; B. Miller, Weisung der V¤ter. Apophthegmata Patrum, Trier 3 1986; Spiritualit¤t des fr¼hen Mnchtums, Erlangen 1988; G.J.M. Bartelink, Les rapports entre le monachisme gyptien et l’piscopat d’Alexandrie, in Alexandrina. Mlanges C. Mondsert, Paris 1987, 365-379; G.M. Colombo, Il monachesimo delle origini, Milan 2 1990; L. Regnault, La vie quotidienne des p¨res du dsert, Paris 1990, It. tr. Casale Monferrato 1994; S. Rubenson, The Letters of St. Anthony, Origenist Theology, Monastic Tradition, Lund 1990; T.  pidl­k, East Syrian Asceticism, in East Syrian Spirituality, ed. A. Thottakkara, Bangalore 1990, 129-142; L.W. Barnard, Asceticism in Early Syriac Christianity, in Monastic Studies, II, ed. J. Loades, Bangor 1991, 13-21; H. Brunner, Die Weisheitsb¼cher der „gypter, Z¼rich-Munich 1991; Les chemins de Dieu au dsert. Collection systmatique des apophthegmes, ed. L. Regnault, Solesmes 1992; H. Holz, Erfahrung und Theologie im fr¼hen Mnchtum, Gttingen 1992; S. Abouzayd, Ihidayutha: A Study of the Life of Singleness in the Syrian Orient, Aram, Oxford 1993; G.J.M. Bartelink, Les apophthegmes des p¨res, VC 47 1993 390-397; D. Burton-Christie, The Word in the Desert, New York-Oxford 1993; G.E. Gould, The Desert Fathers on Monastic Community, Oxford 1993; H. Holze, Schrifterfahrung und Christuserkenntnis im pachomianischen Mnchtum: TZ 49 1993 54-65; K. Koch, Geschichte der ¤gyptischen Religion, Stuttgart-Berlin-Cologne 1993; P. Miquel et al., Dserts Chr- tiens d’‰gypte, Nice 1993; K. Rudolph, Das fr¼he Christentum in „gypten: Riggisberger Berichte 1 1993 21-31; P. Sloterduk, Weltfremdheit, Frankfurt a.M. 1993; K. Vogt, Asctisme fminin en ‰gypte aux IVe  et Ve si¨cles: Le Monde Copte 21-22 1993 107-113; E. Dassmann, Christusnachfolge durch Weltflucht. Asketische Motive im fr¼hchristlichen Mnchtum „gyptens, in A. Gerhards – H. Brakmann, Die Koptische Kirche, StuttgartBerlin-Cologne 1994, 28-45; The Spirituality of Ancient Monasticism, ed. M. Starowieysky, Krakow 1995, 163-181; G.G. Gould, The Influence of Origen on IVth Century Monasticism, in Origeniana VI, Louvain 1995, 591-598; S.H. Griffith, Asceticism in the Church of Syria, in Asceticism, ed. W.L. Wimbush, New York 1995, 220-248; H. Holze, Anapausis in anachoretischen Mnchtum: ZKG 106 1995 1-17.Apophthegmata Patrum | Citydesert travelquaz

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