APOCRYPHA

APOCRYPHA. From patristic literature and from the early Middle Ages come a certain number of lists of canonical and noncanonical books. They exist autonomously, or added to the texts of synods, or inserted in the works of writers such as Cyril of Alexandria, Augustine and Cassiodorus. Listed in them are the books of the OT and NT, but often also other works or apocrypha. The titles are often commented upon, e.g., expressing doubts regarding some canonical books or giving the names of heretics who used the apocryphal works. The reason for these lists was entirely practical: a list of canonical books had not yet been well defined, there were a large number of apocrypha in use by heretics and use of texts in the liturgy required complete orthodoxy: the case of Serapion of Antioch and the Gospel of Peter is typical Eusebius, HE 3,31. These lists have great value for the history of the canon of Scripture and of the use of apocrypha. We will indicate the main lists below chronologically. Muratorian Canon. NT; Latin text translated from Greek ?; second half 2nd c., Rome, lacks the initial part Zahn 1-143; Grosheide 6-11. Canon of Origen d. 254. OT, NT; Greek text. In various places in his works Origen lists the books of the OT and some apocrypha, but he does not give a proper list. See Eusebius, HE 6,25,4-12; Origen, In Lc 1,1; Hom. in Ps 1, PG 12, 1084 Zahn 172-180; Grosheide 12. The catalog of the Codex Claromontanus. OT, NT; Latin text, ca. 300. Inserted between Philem and Heb in the codex with the letters of St. Paul; gives the relative number of the stichoi Zahn 143-156; Grosheide 16-17. The catalog of Eusebius of Caesarea d. 339. HE 3,25, OT, NT; Greek text; lists some apocrypha Grosheide 14-15. Codex Mommsenianus. OT, NT, Latin text, ca. 360; contains 24 canonical books; modeled on the 24 elders of the Apocalypse 4:10. The name comes from T. Mommsen, who discovered it Zahn 143- 156; Grosheide 17-18. Festal Letter of St. Athanasius of 367. Greek text; OT, NT Zahn 203-212; Grosheide 19. Apostolic Constitutions. OT, NT; Greek text; ca. 380. II,57; VI, 16 SC 320, 312-314; 329, 344-346; Zahn 180-184. 85 Apostolic canons. OT, NT; Greek text Zahn 184-193. Canon of Cyril of Jerusalem ca. 350. OT, NT; Greek text; in the Catechesis 4,35-36 Zahn 172-180; Grosheide 15. Council of Laodicea, can. 85 late 4th c.. OT, NT; Greek text. P.P. Joannou, Discipline gnrale antique, 12, Grottaferrata 1963, 51-53 Zahn 193-202. Gregory of Nazianzus d. ca. 390. Greek text. Carm. I,12, De veris Scripturae libris, PG 37, 471-474, 1:121 ANCYRA OT, NT. Poetical text Zahn 221-217; Grosheide 20. Amphilochius of Iconium d. 396. Iambi ad Seleucum, v. 251-313, Greek text; OT, NT Zahn 217- 219; Grosheide 20-21. Filaster of Brescia 4th c.. Latin text, Haeres. 40; 88-89; gives some information on the apocrypha Zahn 233-239. Epiphanius of Salamis d. 402. Some information Zahn 219-226. Ps.-John Chrysostom. Greek text, Synopsis SS., PG 56, 313-386 description of the individual books of the OT; NT: 317 Zahn 226-233. Rufinus of Aquileia d. 410411. Latin text; explicating the third article of the creed, he offers a list of the books of the OT and NT: PL 21, 373-375 Zahn 240-244. Innocent I 405. Letter to Exuperius of Toulouse Epist. 6,7 PL 20, 501; Latin text; OT, NT, a list of apocrypha with an official condemnation Zahn 244-246. Brevis Statutorum Hipponensium 36, PL 56, 428- 429. Latin text; legislation of the Councils of Carthage 397, 419; OT, NT. A similar list is in Augustine’s De doctrina Christiana 2, 8,12-13 Zahn 246-253; Grosheide 21-22. Ps.-Athanasius 4th-5th c.. Synopses of the SS CPG 2249, PG 28, 284-289, 432; Greek text; OT, NT, a list of apocrypha and antilegomena ibid. 432; Zahn 302-318. Turibius of Astorga ca. 447. Epistola ad Idatium et Ceponium; Latin text, PL 54, 693-695. A list of some apocrypha used by the Priscillianists. Leontius of Byzantium 5th-6th c.. De sectis II,4, PG 86, 1203, Greek text; NT Zahn 293-295. Timothy the Presbyter 6th c.. Greek text; a list of apocrypha used by the Manichees, PG 861, 21. Cassiodorus d. 580. Latin text; Institutiones 12 according to Jerome, 13 according to Augustine, 14 according to the Septuagint, PL 70, 1123-1126; OT, NT Zahn 269-284. Ps.-Decretum Gelasianum. Latin text; OT, NT, a long list of apocrypha; PL 59, 157-164; E. von Dobschütz: TU 838, 34, 1912-1913 Grosheide 23-24. Bobbio Codex 6th-7th c.. OT, NT; Latin text Zahn 284-289. John of Damascus d. 749. De fide orthodoxa 4,17, PG 70, 1123-1126; Greek text; NT books with Canons of the Holy Apostles Zahn 295. Patriarch Nicephorus ca. 850. Chronography; Greek text, with the respective number of lines of each book included; NT, antilegomena, apocrypha Zahn 295-301. The Samaritan list 13th c.. Gives a list of 35 apocryphal gospels; J. MacDonald, The Samaritan Chronicle n. II, Berlin 1969. T. Zahn, Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, 1-2, Erlangen-Leipzig 1890-1892 repr. Hildesheim 1975, vol. 2: cit. as Zahn; F.W. Grosheide, Some Early Lists of the Books of the New Testament, Leiden 1948: cit. as Grosheide; T. Zahn, Forschungen zur Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons und der altkirchlichen Literatur, 1-8, Leipzig 1881-1927; J. Leipold, Geschichte des neutestamentlichen Kanons, 1-2, Leipzig 1907-1908 repr. Leipzig 1974; M.J. Lagrange, Histoire ancienne du Nouveau Testament, Paris 2 1933; M. Grant, La formation du Nouveau Testament, Paris 1969; H. von Campenhausen, La formation de la Bible chrtienne, Paris 1971; I. Frank, Der Sinn der Kanonbildung, Freiburg 1971; K.H. Ohling, Die theologische Begründung des neutestamentlichen Kanons in der alten Kirche, Göttingen 1972; Das Neue Testament als Kanon, ed. E. Käsemann, Göttingen 1979 collective work; S. Amsler et al., Le canon de l’Ancien Testament, Geneva 1984; B.M. Metzger, The Canon of the NT, Its Origin, Development, and Significance, Oxford 1987 It. tr. Brescia 1997; C.N. Haneman, The Muratorian Fragment and the Developement of Canon, Oxford 1992; L.M. McDonald, The Formation of the Christian Biblical Canon, Peabody, MA 1995.Is the Apocrypha Scripture? – Borrowed Light travelquaz

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