Anne, Queen (1665–1714)

Born at St. James’s Palace on February 6, 1665, Anne was the second surviving child and younger daughter of James, duke of York (James II), and his first wife, Anne Hyde. Raised at the instruction of Charles II as a Protestant, Anne was a pious and conventional noblewoman, kept deliberately from learning the exercise of political power in favor of needlework and housekeeping. Anne deeply resented both her mother’s conversion to Roman Catholicism and James II’s second marriage to an Italian princess. Anne’s own marriage in 1683, to Prince George of Denmark, was a happy one, although of seventeen pregnancies, only one child, William of Gloucester, lived to age 11, dying in 1700. Anne, living in London when James II became king, was a natural focus for an opposition party. She was at the center of accusations that James II’s son, born in 1688, was the warming-pan baby rather than a true heir. (As a warming pan kept a bed heated in preparation for someone going to bed, so the son would serve as a substitute until a real heir came along.) Subsequently, she and her household officials, including John and Sarah Churchill, aided the Revolution of 1688 by abandoning James II and persuading key figures in the military and church to follow them. Anne continued to be the focus of discontented politicians and nobles during the reign of William and Mary, with whom Anne had a strained relationship, although she was treated as heir to the throne by the childless king and queen. She became queen on March 8, 1702, when William III died. Anne’s reign began with England involved in the War of the Spanish Succession, which she popularized by giving overall command of English forces to Churchill, who would be made duke of Marlborough for his victory at Blenheim. In North America, this war was called Queen Anne’s War, and it included a major Native American conflict, the Tuscarora War (17111715), and a French-provoked Native American raid into Deerfield, Massachusetts. Despite her natural leanings toward the ideology of the Tory party, Anne chose moderate ministers, preferring Churchill and his sons-in-law and largely ignoring the Whigs. Queen Anne (r. 17021714) came to the British throne amid the War of the Spanish Succession, which played out in the American theater as a prolonged territorial struggle with France that became known as Queen Anne’s War. (Philip Mould, Historical Portraits Ltd., London, United Kingdom/Bridgeman Art Library) One of the most significant moves of her reign was arranging the Union of Scotland and England in 1707; the treaty required the queen to expend huge sums in bribes, special favors, and personal requests in order to achieve a permanent joining of the island as Great Britain. This union, however, allowed Scots legal access to the English colonies, where they were establishing powerful tobacco and banking presence. A Jacobite plot on behalf of James II’s Catholic son was launched in 1708, partially in protest against the union, but it was crushed by good intelligence and selective arrests of the Scottish and English ringleaders. The end of Queen Anne’s reign saw significant changes in policy, as a series of crises pushed her from largely passive ruler into active decision maker. Britain’s candidate to be king of Spain, Archduke Charles, also inherited the Habsburg Austrian Empire, while fighting bogged down and costs mounted. A personal falling-out with the Churchills led to their removal from court power and replacement by Robert Harley, and the election of a Tory majority in the House of Commons ensured an end to the War through the Treaty of Utrecht. This treaty gave the British the asiento, a coveted privilege allowing them to sell a quota of African slaves to Spanish America every year, which created the South Sea Company and encouraged seaborne trade in the Caribbean. Additionally, the treaty was an acknowledgment by other European powers that Britain was a significant and very desirable power with which to ally. Anne, a chronic invalid with gout and arthritis, suffered a series of strokes in the summer of 1714, provoking a scramble by her ministers to either ensure their places under the legal, Protestant successor, George of Hanover, or launch a Jacobite restoration under Anne’s half brother, James Edward Stuart. By the time of Anne’s death at Westminster on August 1, 1714, the Jacobite conspirators had failed to organize. George I acceded peacefully to the throne of a united Great Britain, rising on the European scene as a great and colonial power. Margaret Sankey See also: James II; Queen Anne’s War. Bibliography Cowles, Virginia. The Great Marlborough and His Duchess. New York: Macmillan, 1983. Gregg, Edward. Queen Anne. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001. Waller, Maureen. Ungrateful Daughters. New York: St. Martin’s, 2003. Queen Anne (16651714) | Art UK Art UK | Discover Artworks Queen … travelquaz

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Anne, Queen (16651714)

Queen Anne (16651714), c. 1707, by Sir Godfrey Kneller (English … travelquaz

Anne, Queen (16651714)

Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665-1714, r. 1702-1714) painted by … travelquaz

Anne, Queen (16651714)

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