ANASTASIUS

ANASTASIUS d. after 658. Disciple of St. Maximus the Confessor, secretary to the empress Eudoxia wife of Heraclius. In 617 he became the I, pope spiritual son of Maximus, to whom he remained connected for 37 years until his death, following him to the monastery of Chrysopolis 617630, to Africa 630645 and to Rome 645652. He shared the outrage of Maximus’s two trials at Constantinople 656, 658 and, though separated for a period, also his imprisonments and exiles. Anastaius died the last half of July 662 at or on his way to the castrum of Souanias. He likely wrote the Disputatio cum Pyrrho PG 91, 287-353. Many pieces have been attributed to him regarding the above-mentioned trials and afflictions; only the letter to the monks of Cagliari is his, however PG 90, 133B136C. The letter sent to him by Maximus 19 April 658 BHG 1232 survives, to which Anastasius added a postscript exhorting the Romans to stand firm in the faith PG 90, 113-114. BHG 1231-1236; BHL 5841-5844; CPG 7725; J.-M. Garrigues, Le martyre de saint Maxime le Confesseur: Revue Thomiste 76 1976 410-452 Fr. tr. of the acts of the trial and the final drama; BS IX, 41-47; W. Brandes, Juristische Krisenbew¤ltigung im 7. Jahrhundert? Die Prozesse gegen Papst Martin I. und Maximos Homologetes: Fontes Minores 10, ed. L. Burgmann, Forschungen zur Byzantinischen Rechtsgeschichte, ed. D. Simon, Band 22, Frankfurt a.M. 1998, 141-212; P. Allen – B. Neil, Scripta saeculi VII vitam Maximi Confessoris spectantia CCSG 39, Turnhout-Leuven 1999; P. Allen – B. Neil, Maximus the Confessor and His Companions: Documents from Exile Oxford Early Christian Texts, Oxford 2002. D. Stiernon ANASTASIUS, emperor d. 518. A promonophysite, born at Durazzo 431, who became emperor in 491, marrying the widow of his predecessor Zeno. He had to promise the patriarch Euphemius, however, to do nothing against the faith or the canons of Chalcedon. A good administrator and diplomat, Anastasius implemented some reforms. His reign 491518 was much disturbed by circus factions and riots over political-religious questions. The Acacian schism continued under him. He ignored Pope Gelasius’s letter announcing his election 492, deposed Euphemius in favor of Macedonius II 493 and did not recognize Pope Symmachus 498, favoring the antipope Laurentius. From then on he favored monophysitism with increasing openness: Severus, who was elected patriarch at Antioch, condemned the Council of Chalcedon in 513 at Tyre; at Constantinople, monophysite monks added qui crucifixus est pro nobis to the Trisagion, the orthodox were persecuted and Macedonius II was deposed. Riots broke out in the stadium and the official Vitalian rebelled. Anastasius then sought to conciliate Pope Hormisdas but broke off discussions when he again had control of the situation. His successor Justin 518 reestablished orthodoxy. DHGE II, 1447-1457; Fliche-Martin, Storia della Chiesa IV, Turin 1970, 375-397; Stein-Palanque, Hist. du Bas Empire II, Amsterdam 1968, 77-217; C. Capizzi, Anastasio I, Studio sulla sua vita, la sua opera e la sua personalit , Rome 1969. A. De Nicola ANASTASIUS, poet 6th c.?. A famous kontakion sung for dead priests has the acrostic VAnastasi,ou tou tapeinou ai=noj and was cited in the old euchologies e.g. Goar, Euchologion, Venice 1730, repr. Graz 1960, 561-575; the first troparion is still used on Saturdays of abstinence avpo,krew and of the dead yucosa,bbaton. J.B. Pitra, Analecta Sacra I, 242-249, published a critical edition. It has been attributed to the quaestor Anastasius the Stammerer 9th-10th c., to Anastasius the Sinaite and to an otherwise unknown monk who lived before Romanus Melodus, who was influenced by it. DHGE 2,1477; Bardenhewer 5,165; Beck 446; LTK 1,491; W. Christ – M. Paranikas, Anthologia graeca carminum christianorum, Lipsia 1871 repr. 1963, XXXV and CIIf. A. De Nicola ANASTASIUS I, pope 399401. LP considers him a Roman, son of Maximus. Esteemed by Paulinus of Nola Ep. 20 and Jerome Ep. 127, 10; 130, 16, in part because he was more sensitive than his predecessor Siricius 384399 to the ascetical movements, which appealed to Paulinus and Jerome. Anastasius’s name is esp. linked to the Origenist controversy, which exploded in the West during his pontificate, after the Latin translation and diffusion of the Peri archon by Rufinus of Aquileia. Despite the latter’s attempt to amend some passages of Origen’s text, Anastasius, yielding to anti-Origenist pressure including that from Jerome, condemned the Alexandrian teacher and his doctrines, and with him Simplicianus, bishop of Milan. Rufinus defended himself and Origen in the Apologia contra Hieronymum CCL 20, 29-123, sending it to Jerome and Anastasius, who in fact had not explicitly included the Latin version of the De principiis or its author in the condemnation. In 401 Anastasius also moved against Donatism, encouraging the bishops of N Africa in that direction. He also confirmed the decrees of the Council of Toledo 400, restoring to their respective sees bishops who had dissociated themselves from Priscillianism and denouncing the Manichees at Rome. Anastasius’s letters manifest a sense of responsibility for the ANASTASIUS I of Antioch orthodoxy of all the churches see Ep. 9, 5, but that this consciousness and expression of primacy was accepted by the African bishops does not appear to have been fully the case according to Theophilus of Alexandria, who sees in Anastasius’s condemnation of Origen primarily the bishop of Rome’s adherence to Alexandrian decisions see Justinian, Liber c. Origenem: PG 86, 967. Anastasius, Epistulae, PL 20, 65-80; PL, Supp. I, 790-792; Paulinus of Nola, Ep. 20, CSEL 29 G. de Hartel, 142-149; Jaff I, Leipzig 1885, 42-43; LP I, 218-219; Rufinus, Apologia ad Anastasium, CCL 20, 19-28 M. Simonetti; Id., Apologia contra Hieronymum: CCL 20, 29-123 M. Simonetti; Jerome, Ep. 95, 97, 127 and 130: CSEL 55-56, 1 J. Hilberg; Id., Apologia contra Rufinum: CCL 79 P. Lardet; E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papstums I, T¼bingen 1930, 285-287, 291-292; M. Villain, Rufin d’Aquile. La querelle autour d’Orig¨ne: RSR 27 1937 5-37; P. Paschini – V. Monachino, I Papi nella storia, I, Rome 1961, 60-65; DHGE 2, 1471-1473 J.-P. Kirsch; BS I, 1065-1066 F. Caraffa; LTK3  1, 602 G. Schwaiger; Dizionario storico del Papato, ed. Ph. Levillain, I, Milan 1996, 42-43; EPapi I, 381-385 A. Pollastri. M. Spinelli ANASTASIUS I of Antioch d. 598599. Patriarch whose Palestinian origin is dubious, as is his status as a monk on Sinai. Apocrisarius of the patriarch of Alexandria at Antioch, he succeeded Domninus III as patriarch of Antioch in 559. In 565 he opposed the edict of Justinian regarding aphthartodocetism; the emperor considered exiling him, but died before carrying this out 565. The successor, Justin II, deposed Anastasius 570 and sent him to Jerusalem. He was an intimate friend of Gregory the Great who, on becoming pope, got him restored 593 to his see, where Anastasius remained undisturbed until his death 598599. Of his polemical-dogmatic writings only the De orthodoxa fide orationes V have survived intact: 1 De Sancta Trinitate which treats the eternity of the Word, his consubstantiality with the Father and the Holy Spirit, the procession of the latter also from the Son, the unity of the divine nature and operations against the tritheists and John Philoponus; 2 De incircumscripto which argues that God, by his nature and preserving energy, is everywhere and continually present in creation; 3 De divina incarnatione which discusses the reason for the incarnation of the Word, the hypostatic union of the two distinct and unmixed natures, the consubstantiality of his assumed human nature with our own, scriptural proofs; 4 De passione et impassibilitate Christi which sets forth cleary the communicatio idiomatum; 5 De resurrectione Christi which discusses the real death of Christ, the descent into hell, the resurrection’s not involving destruction of the corporeal substance but only a change in its qualities, the ascension, the final parousia. Of his other writings we know only the titles and some fragments: his clear and almost scholastic exposition had a considerable influence on later Byzantine theologians. Of his sermons, recognized as authentic by all are those on the second enthronement Oratio pacificatoria and On Lent fragment; there is some dispute concerning the sermons On the Annunciation two, the first of which justifies the date of the feast: 25 March, On the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, On Easter and On the Transfiguration. Evagrius Scol., HE 4,39ff.; 5,5; 6,24; Gregory the Great, Ep. passim: CPG III 6944-6969: PG 89, 1289-1408; S.N. Sakkos, Anastasio»  hapanta  erga, Thessalonica 1976; Bardenhewer IV, 146-149; Beck 380-381: Altaner 549-550; S.N. Sakkos, Per Anastasio» Sinaito», Thessalonica 1964; G. Weiss, Studia Anastasiana I. Studien zum Leben, zu den Schriften und zur Theologie des Patriarchen Anastasius I von Antiochien: Miscellanea Byzant. Monacensia 4, Munich 1965; E. Chrysos, Ne´terai ereunai per Anastasio» Sinaito», I 1969 121-124; Patrologia V, 206-213 and index of names; Testi mariani del primo millennio, ed. A. Gharib, vol. 2, Rome 1988, 70-79. A. De Nicola ANASTASIUS II, pope 496498. Son of a Roman presbyter, elected to succeed Gelasius I 27 November 496. During his brief pontificate two years: died 19 November 498 Anastasius made efforts to reconcile Rome with Constantinople and end the Acacian schism. Upon election he wrote to the emperor Anastasius about this, expressing regret for the separation and his openness to recognizing consecrations and baptisms administered by Acacius, though without confirming his orthodoxy. Recognizing this first attempt as ineffective, Anastasius sent a delegation to the emperor, reiterating his conciliatory disposition Jaff, 748. This effort was also unsuccessful, due to the emperor’s demand that the pope subscribe to the Henoticon the Edict of Union, which the latter had rejected. Anastasius’s open and hopeful disposition toward the Byzantines, moreover, provoked a negative reaction among his own clergy LP I, 258, who accused Anastasius of heresy and after his death promoted the Laurentian schism see Lawrence; Symmachus. His relations with the West in general were more constructive and better articulated. Anastasius sent the bishops of Gaul a letter condemning traducianism, i.e., the opinion that the parents generate the human soul Jaff, 751. Perhaps the most positive and significant event of Anastasius’s pontificate was the conversion of the Frankish king Clovis to Catholicism under the influence of his wife Clotilde; the sovereign was bapitized after defeating the Alemanni at Tolbiacum modern Zulpich. Anastasius was buried in the atrium of St. Peter’s basilica. Jaff I, Leipzig 1885, 95-96; Epistolae Romanorum Pontificum genuinae , I, ed. A. Thiel, Brunsbergae 1868, 82ff., 614ff.; LP I, 258-259; H. Grisar, Roma alla fine del mondo antico, II, Rome 1930; O. Bertolini, Roma di fronte a Bisanzio e ai Longobardi, Bologna 1941, 31-32 and 46ff.; P.A.B. Llewellyn, The Roman Clergy During the Laurentian Schism 498506: A Preliminary Analysis: Ancient Society 8 1977 245-275; LTK 1, 602-603 G. Schwaiger; DHGE 2, 1473-1475 J. P. Kirsch; BS I, 1071 P. Burchi; EPapi I, 462-464 P. Bertolini.Anastasius I | Byzantine emperor | Britannica.com travelquaz

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