AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS ca.335400. Latin historian, born at Antioch to a noble Greek family. As a youth he entered the corps of the protectores domestici, for a long time following the magister equitum Ursicinus, first at Nisibis, Milan and Antioch, then in Gaul and the East, against the Persians.
After escaping from the siege of Amida 359, he went with Ursicinus to Melitene and from there to Antioch.
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In 363 he followed the emperor Julian in the expedition against the Persians and, after Julian's death 26 July 363, retreated to Antioch; after further travels he reached Rome, where he wrote the Rerum gestarum libri. In contact with Roman aristocratic circles, Ammianus became a senator in his final years Symm. Ep.
IX, 110, although he was expelled from Rome in 383 on the occasion of a severe famine. He died shortly after 400. Ammianus's work, the Rerum gestarum libri, covered the period from Nerva 96 to the death of Valens 378 in 31 books.
The surviving books, XIV-XXXI, include 26 years of history, from 354 death of Gallus to 378. While programatically following Tacitus's Historiae, Ammianus dedicated much of his work to describing the historical events of his own time, whose customs, society and cultural trends he carefully described. The presence of a variety of substantial excursuses, the insertion of speeches and the use of an artificial style attest to his taste for the traditions of the genre.
His essential paganism, reflected in his praise of Julian, does not prevent him from detachment and impartiality toward Christianity. Claims of benign religious tolerance XXII,10, 2; XXX,9, 5 accompany disapproval of Julian's persecuting zeal XXII,10, 7; XXII,12, 7; XXV,4, 17-20 and sincere words of admiration for the martyrs XXII,11,10. His interest in religious movements was a fruit of the same curiositas that caused him to diligently note miracula and signa XIX,12, 20; he was also well informed, however, about the usage and customs of the church XIV,9, 7; XXI,2, 5; XXXI,12, 8; XV,7, 7, as well as of its internal affairs, such as the clash between Damasus and Ursinus XXVII,3, 12-15.
His sources remain uncertain and obscure: probably Oribasius, Magnus of Carre, Virius Nicomachus Flavianus, Eutychianus of Cappadocia, Rufius Festus, Timagenes, Pliny the Elder these latter for the excursuses. The text is in codex Vat. Lat.
1873, an exact copy of a 10th-c. Codex from Hersfeld now almost completely lost. The editio princeps was published at Rome in 1474 by Angelo Sabino.
C.U. Clark, Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt, Berlin 1915 = 1963; J.C. Rolfe, Ammianus Marcellinus, with an English tr. 3 vols. London 1935-39 = 1982-86; W.
Seyfarth, Ammiani Marcellini rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt, 2 vols. Leipzig 1978; Id. Ammianus Marcellinus rmische Geschichte, 4 vols. Berlin 1968-86; E.Galletier – G.Sabbah – J.
Fontaine – A.-M. Mari – L.A. de la Beaumelle, Ammien Marcellin Histoires, 6 vols. Paris 1968-99; O.
Veh – G.Wirth, Das rmische Weltreich vor dem Untergang: s¤mtliche erhaltene B¼cher A.M. Z¼rich 1974 = Amsterdam 1997; A.
Selem, Le storie di Ammianus Marcellinus, Turin 1976 = 1993; J.den Boeft, D.den Hengst et al. Philological and Historical Commentary on Ammianus, Groningen 1987-1998; M.
Caltabiano, Ammianus Marcellinus, Storie, Milan 1989; PWK I, 1845-1852; EI 2, 988-990; EC 1, 1080-1082; KlP V, 302; RAC I, 386ff. ; LTK 1, 440; Schanz IV, 1, 93-107; R.Syme, Ammianus and the Historia Augusta, Oxford 1968; L.Angliviel de la Beaumelle, Remarques sur l'attitude d'Ammien Marcellin l'gard du christianisme, in Mlanges d'Histoire Ancienne offerts William Seston, Paris 1974, 15-23; R.C.
Blockley, Ammianus Marcellinus: A Study of His Historiography and Political Thought, Brussels 1975; N.Bitter, Kampfschilderungen bei Ammianus Marcellinus, Bonn 1976; G.Viansino, Studi sulle Res Gestae di Ammiano Marcellino, Salerno 1977; G.
Sabbah, La mthode d'Ammien Marcellin, Paris 1978; N.J.E. Austin, Ammianus on Warfare: An Investigation into Ammianus' Military Knowledge, Brussels 1979; E.A. Thompson, The Historical Work of Ammianus Marcellinus, 1947; V.
Neri, Ammiano e il cristianesimo: religione e politica nelle Res gestae di Ammianus Marcellinus, Bologna 1985; J.Matthews, The Roman Empire of Ammianus, London 1989; var.aus. Cognitio Gestorum: The Historiographic Art of Ammianus Marcellinus, Amsterdam 1991; M.
Navarra, Riferimenti normativi e prospettive giuspubblicistiche nelle Res gestae di Ammianus Marcellinus, Milan 1994; T.D. Barnes, Ammianus Marcellinus and the Representation of Historical Reality, Ithaca – London 1998; J.W. Drijvers – D.
Hunt, The Late Roman World and Its Historian: Interpreting Ammianus Marcellinus, London – New York 1999; F.Wittchow, Exemplarisches Erz¤hlen bei Ammianus Marcellinus, Munich 2002.M. L.
Angrisani Sanfilippo AMMON 4th c.. Bishop of an unspecified see. At the request of a bishop Theophilus, he wrote a letter on Pachomius and esp.
On his favorite disciple Theodore. Ammon knew the latter personally when, from age 17, he spent three years at Pbou 352-355. The letter can be likened in its literary inspiration to Athanasius's Life of Anthony and to the Lausiac History of Palladius: all three provide, by request, a history that is also a eulogy on the monastic life.
Ammon describes Theodore's most outward and marvelous traits, his gift of prophecy and miracles. His evidence must be used with circumspection. CPG II, 2378; CPGS, 2378.
E.Prinzivalli AMMON of Adrianople d.after 394.
Late 4th-c. Bishop of Adrianople Thrace, who participated at the synod of Constantinople 394 that resolved the schism between Bagadius and Agapius over the see of Bostra Mansi III, 851-854. He was again at Constantinople in 399, participating in the meeting of bishops in which Eusebius of Valentinopolis presented his accusation of simony against Antoninus of Ephesus.
Ammon wrote a De resurrectione against Origen. CPG II, 2540; CPGS, 2540. Ammianus Marcellinus, ultimul mare istoric latin travelquaz
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