Al Hasakah Travel on These processes produce the figure of the normal citizen, excavating it from a human that is constantly divided and selectively interpreted according to criteria such as class, gender, race, security, or foreignness (465-515). In this perspective, citizenship appears as a difference machine (Isin 2002). To track how it produces new stratifications arid hierarchies, there is a need to analyze how this machine intertwines anthropological with territorial boundaries. For instance, complex assemblages of gender and race are at work to produce the subject position of the migrant care workers we discussed in chapter 4, whose foreignness is often translated into a precarious or irregular legal status.
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Concerns of security mingle with racial fantasies in public debates on illegal migration, while certain groups of migrants are more accepted than others (and therefore in a position to better negotiate their partial citizenship) due to considerations of language, nationality, or religion. Not only the status of subjects but also the spaces of action available to them as activist citizens are deeply influenced by these factors. To deepen our critical analysis of citizenship as a difference machine and its related production of subjectivity, it is necessary to articulate it with a reinterpretation of Marx's critique of political economy.
Al Hasakah Travel 2016.